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U. S. DRPA-RTMRNT OF AGRICUI/rURl 

BUREAU OF CHEMISTRY BULLETIN NO. 71. 



II, W , \\] \A.\\ (IIIKI I.I 1^,1 KtAI 



STUDY OF CIDER MAKING 



FRANCE, GERMANY, AND ENGLAND, 



wri'ii 



iMMP^NTS. AM) CO.MPAIMSOXS ON AMEIUCAX WORK 



BY 



^VILLrAM R. AT^AS^OOD, 

^/iirial .!(/.';// iif llii r, S. Ih/iiirh/inii iif Ai/i'irii/lnri' a ml Mi/coloijisf 
11/ III!' I'irijiiild Atfririi/fiiidl H.I jH'iiinfiit Sfdtiuii. 




WASHINGTON: 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE, 




U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

BUREAU OP CHEMISTRY BULLETIN NO. 71. 
H. W. WILEY, Chief of Bureau. 



A STUDY OF CIDER MAKmG 



IN 



FRANCE, GERMANY, AND ENGLAND, 



WITH 



COMMENTS AND COMPARISONS ON AMERICAN WORK. 



BY 



^VILLIAM B. AL\\^OOT>, 

Special Agent of the U. S. Department of Agriculture and Mycologist 
of the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station. 




WASHINGTON: 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. 

1903. 



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL. 



U. S. Department of Agriculture, 

Bureau of Chemistry, 
^YasUngtol^ I). C, July 15, 1902. 
Sir: I have the honor to transmit herewith, for your examination 
and approval, the manuscript of a bulletin prepared by Mr. William 
B. Alwood, special agent of the Department of Agriculture, on cider 
making in France, Germany, and England. 

I recommend that this manuscript be published as Bulletin No. 71 
of the Bureau of Chemistry. 

Respectfull}^, H. W. Wiley, 

Chief. 
Hon. James Wilson, 

Secretary of Agriculture, 

3 



LEITER OF SUBMITTAL 



Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station, 

Blaclsburg, Va., June 23, 1902. 
Sir: In pursuance of a commission from the Secretaiy of Agricul- 
ture, dated September 13, 1900, appointing me a special agent in the 
Division of Chemistry, and of your official instructions of the same 
date, J. beg to submit the accompanying report, comprising a partial 
study of the cider industry in Europe, which has been prepared for 
the U. S. Department of Agriculture. 

The present paper comprises only a part of the work authorized by 
the commission issued to me, and carried on under conjoint direction. 
The aim has been to present a practical and popular treatment of the 
subject, so far as the time at my disposal permitted me to carry the 
inquiry. Necessaril}^ this report must be fragmentary and incom- 
plete, as one person could not possibly cover the entire ground in a 
single season. 

From the complex nature of the work undertaken, it has seemed 
best to present two repoils the present one dealing with the economic 
and practical data collected, and a second report dealing with the more 
technical studv of methods of fermentation and related matters, such 
as a study of the organisms commonly found in apple juice, and the 
importance of the isolation, culture, and emplo3'ment of pure yeasts 
in the manufacture of ciders and other fermented beverages made 
from fruit juices. A discussion of the organisms causing mal-fermen- 
tations will also be attempted. 

Very respectfully submitted. 

Wm. B. Alwood, 

Special Agent. 
Dr. H. W. Wiley, Chief., Bureau of Chemistry., 

U. S. Dejpa7'traent of Agriculture. 
4 



PREFACE. 



The manufacture of cider is an important adjunct to fruit growing 
in the United States. A well-made cider is a beverage which is appre- 
ciated by all and one which is within the reach of every possessor of 
an orchard. Cider is also a beverage which may be manufactured 
without the supervision of the excise officials. It is thus an industry 
which can be widely extended and whose development will make the 
growing of fruits more jDrofitable. 

It is evident that the principles which underlie the conduct of the 
fermentation of apple juice in order to secure a product of a definite 
chemical composition also apply to the juices of other fruits, such as 
pears and peaches, and thus a bulletin of this description affects, in 
general, the fruit interests of the country wherever the juices of fruits 
are employed for potable purposes. 

Up to the present time the manufacture of cider in the United States 
has been conducted largely by empirical methods. Little has been done 
toward the study of the chemical composition of the fruits, the fresh 
juices, the fermenting musts, or the finished products. What is true 
of wines is also true of ciders and other fermented fruit juices, viz, 
that their excellence and healthfulness are dependent entirely upon 
their chemical composition. The changes which take place in fruit 
juices during fermentation are essentially chemical, and are produced 
by ferments, which in these instances may be regarded as chemical 
reagents. 

In order that the manufacture of cider may be conducted in a more 
systematic and scientific manner in this country, it was deemed desir- 
able to study the best processes employed in foreign countries, espe- 
cially in England, France, and Germany, which are the principal cider- 
producing countries of the world. To this end, Mr. William B. Alwood 
was employed by the Secretary of Agriculture as a special agent to 
act under the direction of the Chief of the Bureau of Chemistry, and 
was detailed to study the actual processes of manufacture in the coun- 
tries named, as well as to conduct extensive experiments here. Mr. 
Alwood, in addition to collecting valuable information of a practical 
nature, has also brought together the scattered chemical data found 
in difficultly accessible reports and papers, so as to make them available 
for use. 



6 

It is evident that a careful study of the data thus collected will be 
of great service to our own manufacturers in showing them the methods 
which experience and scientific studies in foreign countries have deter- 
mined to be the best for the production of a wholesome and palatable 
article. 

This bulletin serves as an introduction to a more detailed stud}^ of 
the best methods of fermentation, cellar treatment, and preservation 
of cider products, together with a more detailed chemical study of the 
fruits, the musts, and the finished beverages. 

H. W. Wiley, 

Chief of Bureau. 



CONTENTS. 



Page. 

Introduction 1] 

Beginning of this investigation 11 

Quantity of apples produced in the United States 12 

Disposition of this fruit 13 

Acknowledgments 14 

Classification of ciders 15 

In France 15 

In Germany 16 

In England 18 

Principal cider-producing countries of Europe 19 

Relative importance of the cider industry in different countries 19 

The chief cider-producing districts 20 

The French cider districts 21 

The German cider districts 24 

The English cider districts 26 

Cider apples 27 

Important characteristics of cider apples ' 28 

Comparison of cider apples 30 

French standards 30 

German standards 35 

English standards 39 

American standards 42 

Harvesting, transportation, and storage of cider fruit 46 

Cider-making establishments 50 

Primitive methods and appliances 51 

Modern methods and appliances 56 

Factory systems 59 

French factories 59 

German factories 67 

English factories 71 

Production of the must 74 

Ripeness of the fruit 74 

Mixing varieties of apples 75 

Washing the fruit 76 

Grinding or crushing the fruit 76 

Maceration of pulp 77 

Expressing the must 78 

Soaking the pomace 78 

Fermentation of cider 78 

Room, vessels, and appliances used 79 

Temperature of fermentation room 79 

Vessels used in fermentation 80 

Filling the vessels 81 

Controlling the exit and entrance of gases 82 

Ventilating bungs and spigots for casks / 84 

7 



Fermentation of cider Continued. Page. 

The character of the must '. 86 

Use of densimeters 86 

What is a standard must? 87 

Fortifying the must 91 

Sterihzing the must by heat 91 

The use of special yeasts 92 

Observation and control of fermentation ., 94 

Definition and description of fermentation 94 

First or tumultuous fermentation 95 

Kacking off 98 

Avoidance of contact with air 98 

Second fermentation 99 

Second racking off 100 

Lager fermentation 102 

German method of fermentation 102 

Preserving cider in storage 103 

Filtering or clarifying the cider 104 

The chemical composition of cider 108 

Works of reference 113 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



PLATES. 

Page. 
Plate I. Fig. 1. Main building, Royal Pomological School, Geisenheim, 
Germany. Fig. 2. Giant tree of Pyrus {Sorbus) domestica, 

Taunus, German j'^ 14 

II. Fig. 1. Cider apple trees by the roadside, Normandy, France. 

Fig. 2. Glimpse into an old pear orchard, Normandy. 20 

III. Types of cider apple trees in Normandy, France 22 

IV. Homes of peasant cider makers in Normandy, France 24 

V. Fig. 1. Train loaded with cider apples in sacks, France. Fig. 2. 

Ox cart used for hauling apples in Germany 48 

VI. Fig. 1. ^Itinerant cider makers at work in streets; straw used in 
building up cheese, Rennes, France. Fig. 2. Similar outfit 

mounted for travel, waiting for a job, Trouville, France 58 

VII. Fig. 1. Butleigh Court, Somersetshire, England, seat of English 
cider experiment station. Fig. 2. The cider orchard at But- 
leigh Court 74 

TEXT FIGURES. 

Fig. 1. Bin made of hurdles for outdoor storage of apples, used in England. 50 

2. The "touraauge" apple crusher, Normandy, France 51 

3. Primitive apple grater in use in Germany 54 

4. Primitive single-lever cider press in use in Germany 55 

5. Primitive double-lever cider press in use in Germany 55 

6. The ' ' greif ' ' apple crusher of Germany 56 

7. Slotted bottom of hopper used in ' ' greif ' ' machine 57 

8. " Greif ' ' apple crusher sectional view of hopper 58 

9. Crushing cylinders of the "greif" machine 59 

10. Fermentation and storage room, Noel system, France 60 

11. Vertical section of factory of the "Union Agricole," St. Ouen-de- 

Thouberville, near Rouen, France 63 

12. Ground plan of factory of the " Union Agricole " 64 

13. Vertical cross section of small German cider factory with arched 

cellars , 70 

14. Vertical cross section of two-story German cider cellar 71 

15. No&l device for ventilating fermentation casks 82 

16. German earthenware ventilating funnel vertical section 83 

17. Glycerin ventilating funnel 84 

18. Bent ventilating tube 85 

19. Noel ventilating bung 85 

20. Device for maintaining covering layer of carbon dioxid. as cider is 

withdrawn 103 

21. Device for charging casks with carbon dioxid in storage cellar 104 

22. Device for burning sulphur match in casks 104 

23. Linen sack gravity filter 105 

24. Cellulose power filter used in Germany 106 

25. Asbestos sack filter " Filtre Maignen " 107 

26. Asbestos gravity filter 108 

9 



A STUDY OF CIDER MAKING IN FRANCE, GERMANY, 

AND ENGLAND. 



INTRODUCTION. 

In the United States cider has been in the past too generally 
regarded as a product of ver}^ little importance from a commercial 
standpoint, and it has been too often so made that most persons of cul- 
tured taste have looked upon it with little approval when offered as a 
beverage. Yet from the etymology of the word it is certain that the 
name is very ancient, and that cider was the wine or strong drink, 
"shekar," of the Phoenicians, and was well known by the Ar^^an race 
which populated northern Europe before the dawn of history. A 
study of the words used to denote the apple and the beverage made 
from it shows that the fruit and the wine were known before the races 
of northern Europe separated into Slavonians, Germans, and Celts, 
and that the ancient Britons introduced the fruit into the British Isles 
before the Roman conquest.^ The word cidei' as used b}^ English- 
speaking people is the same as the Latin cicera^ Spanish sidra, Italian 
sidro, and French cidre. 

The German language, on the other hand, seems never to have con- 
tained the word cider as a pure German word, but the beverage made 
from the fruit of the apple is classed as a wine {ajpfel wein). 

BEGINNING OF THIS INVESTIGATION. 

The subject of working up the low-grade apples left as an unmer- 
chantable residuum of the apple crops grown in the United States has 
for some j^ears attracted the attention of the writer, and experimental 
work on this subject has been done in the horticultural department 
of the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station for the past eight 
years. Several preliminary reports of this work have been published* 
from time to time, intended to encourage local efforts to utilize the 
large quantities of unmerchantable fruit produced every j^ear when 
there is a fruit crop. 

These preliminary efforts served to awaken a strong interest in the 
possibilities of making a pure sound cider froin our apples, which 

Sir George Birdwood quoted by Cooke in " Cider and Perry," p. 3. 
b Bulletins 48, 57, and 71, Va. Agr. Expt. Station. 

11 



12 

might serve as a light American wine so cheap and wholesome as to be 
usable by everybody, and as a secondary product from such fermented 
cider a fine apple vinegar to displace the enormous quantities of chem- 
ical vinegars which find sale in those States where their manufacture 
and sale are not restricted by statute. 

The importance of utilizing our low-grade apples can only be appre- 
ciated after realizing the probable quantity of this fruit produced in 
the United States. 

QUANTITY OF APPLES PRODUCED IN THE UNITED STATES. 

It is impossible to present an accurate estimate of the apple crop of 
the United States. The Census Bureau has not in the past gathered 
statistics concerning this crop which can be said to cover this subject 
with any degree of completeness; nor has the Department of Agri- 
culture been able up to the present time to furnish the data desired. 
The difficulties grow out of the nature of the crop itself. The apple 
is a fruit grown almost over the entire cultivated area of the country, 
but in many instances only in a haphazard manner and as a crop of 
secondary importance; hence any attempt to deal with it accurately 
from a statistical standpoint must of necessity fail because of the 
immense labor involved and the lack of definite information among 
the farmers themselves as to the amount of their crops. 

The growth, however, of commercial orcharding, along with the 
practice of packing and handling the merchantable crop in barrels 
and boxes, has made it possible to gather with some degree of accu- 
racy statistics of the merchantable apples which enter into commerce. 
These statistics have been collected by the Orange Judd Publishing 
Company with perhaps more care than by any other concern in the 
country, and from their tables'* the following data are taken: 

The greatest crop ever recorded in this country appears to have been 
that of 1896, and comprised 69,070,000 barrels. It also appears that 
the average merchantable crop of the country is in round numbers 
50,000,000 barrels, or about 140,000,000 bushels, annually. 

If this quantity enters into commerce through avenues sufficiently 
definite to give it a place in the statistics of trade, how shall one esti- 
mate the millions of bushels which are unmerchantable, or which enter 
commerce untraced and unrecorded ? 

It is, then, very evident that we have no means of estimating with 
reasonable accuracy the grand total of our apple crop; but well-informed 
persons will, I think, agree to the statement that, on the whole, not 
more than about 60 per cent of the fruit actually grown in this country 
finds its way into channels of commerce in such a manner as to appear 
in general statistics. If this be a fair supposition, then nearly 
100,000,000 bushels of this fruit are either consumed without having 

American AgricuTturist, October 27, 1900, p. 398. 



13 

passed through the channels of commerce mentioned above or go to 
waste on the farms where grown. 

DISPOSITION OF THIS FRUIT. 

First of all, a large part is consumed where grown or in local markets. 
Large quantities are consumed in the manufacture of evaporated fruit 
and of cider, both for drinking purposes and for conversion into 
vinegar. In certain districts large quantities of low-grade fruit are 
used for canning and making marmalades, butters, jellies, etc. A 
great quantity of this unmerchantable fruit, especiall}^ in the South, 
goes into the preparation of sun-dried fruit. In some years 200 tons 
of this sun-dried fruit are shipped from the little station of Chris- 
tiansburg, Va., 8 miles from the experiment station at Blacksburg. 

Perhaps the data'* in regard to merchantable fruit produced have 
been collected with as great accurac}'^ in Virginia as in any other State. 
These data show that our crop of 1897 reached about 281,889 barrels. 
These figures are not quite high enough for that year, as the total 
merchantable crop was about 300,000 barrels. Supposing this to have 
been 60 per cent of the total crop, about 1,400,000 bushels of apples 
were produced in Virginia that year. Of this quantity about 600,000 
bushels were locall}^ consumed or went to waste, Formerl}^ the esti- 
mates were much larger, being based on the Eleventh Census,* but we 
now know that the census figures of 1890, so far as the}^ relate to apple 
production in Virginia, are inadequate. 

Excepting the sun-dried, evaporated, and canned fruit, the apple 
products just enumerated are generally adulterated in the United 
States, either b}/ the use of other than vegetable substances or by the 
mixture of different fruit and vegetable substances, and the use of 
various preservatives and substances which, if not preservative, serve 
to mask defects in quality and cheapen methods of manufacture. This 
adulteration has become so notorious as to greatly injure a legitimate 
trade which should be a most proper and natural outlet for this large 
portion of our apple crop which falls below merchantable grade. 

The important practical bearing of these secondary industries upon 
fruit growing in our country has led the writer for a number of years 
past to devote some attention to their study, with a view to determin- 
ing the principles which lie at the basis of the practical manufacture 
of these products on the farms or in small cooperative factories placed 
in the midst of the districts which furnish the raw material. 

To this work the authorities of the Virginia Agricultural Experiment 
Station have given all the support possible with the funds available, 
and the work has progressed sufficiently to enable us to give practical 
instruction of a reliable character to our students, especially along the 
lines of canning and making butters and marmalades. But on some 

"Bulletin 101, Va. Expt. Sta. & Bulletin 48, Va. Expt. Sta. 



14 

lines we had up to the spring of 1900 made little or no progress, most 
conspicuous among which were the practical methods of fermenting 
ciders and vinegars, and the biology of the alcoholic and acetic ferments. 
All questions relating to products from fruits received consideration 
in my work abroad, but particular attention was given to a practi- 
cal examination of the methods of manufacturing cider in France, 
Germany, and England, and a study of the biology of alcoholic and 
acetic fermentation of fruit juices, either for the manufacture of 
beverages or vinegar. This paper deals with the cider investigation 
in its practical bearings, and other questions of interest are reserved 
for a subsequent report. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. 

In the investigations made abroad I was almost without exception 
received in the most cordial manner by both public officers and private 
individuals whom I had occasion to call upon for assistance; and 
while 1 can not mention by name all persons who gave assistance, I 
wish to extend special thanks to the following: 

The diplomatic and consular officers of our Government at London, 
Paris, Frankfort, and Berlin extended every courtesy, aiding me by 
introductions and by furnishing special information, all of which 
assisted very much in the accomplishment of the work in hand. 

In England I was received in a most courteous manner and, barring 
some slight exceptions, was shown over the factories and given such 
information as was desired. Among those who thus assisted I wish to 
mention especially the following: 

Major Craigie, of the board of agriculture; Mr. F. H. Hall, of the agricultural col- 
lege at Wye; Hon. C. W. Radcliff Cooke, of Hellens, near Dyniock, Herefordshire; 
Mr. Charles D. Wise, of Winchcombe, Gloucestershire; Mr. F. J. Lloyd, London, 
consulting chemist of the Bath and West Society; R. Neville Grenville, esq., But- 
leigh Court, Somersetshire; Mr. Frederick George Farwell, Bath; Mr. A. E. Beach, 
Winchcombe, Gloucestershire; Mr. T. W. Beach, Ealing Road, Brentford, London; 
Mr. H. P. Bulmer, Ryelands, Herefordshire; Mr. Henry Weston, Much Markle, 
Herefordshire; Mr. John Watkins, Withington, Herefordshire. 

In France I was very courteously received by Mr. Leon Vassilliere, 
director of agriculture in the ministry of agriculture, and by him 
introduced to others. Prof. A. Kayser, of the National School of 
Agriculture, Paris, extended everj'^ courtesy in his laboratory % and 
permitted me to note the methods of his work and study the litera- 
ture of his department. Mr. A. Truelle, of Trouville, Calvados, 
assisted me in securing information and special literature. Mr. A. 
Power, director of the Grand Cidrerie at Saint Ouen-de-Thouberville, 
permitted me to study the methods of the factory, and gave much 
assistance. Mr. E. Herissant, director of the Practical Agricultural 
School of Three Crosses, at Rennes, Brittany, in like manner explained 



Bu) 71. Bureau of Cherriistry. U. S. Dept. Agr. 



Plate I. 




FiQ. 1. Main Building, Royal Pomological School, 
Geisenheim, Germany. 










Fig. 2. Giant Tree of Pyrus (Sorbus) domestica, Taunus, 
Germany. 



15 

the methods of his work, both in studying varieties of cider apples 
and making cider, and secured special literature for me. Mr. Isidore 
Guibout, and his son, Mr. Joseph Guibout, peasant farmers of Danestal, 
Calvados, gave me every opportunity to study the conditions and 
technique of cider making on the peasant proprietors' places. Mr. 
J. M. Buisson, secretary of one of the horticultural syndicates of 
France, extended many courtesies, and introduced me to many men 
from whom information could be obtained. 

In Germany I am first of all indebted to Director R. Goethe, of the 
Royal Pomological School, at Geisenheim (PL I, fig. 1), for courtesies 
extended at that institution. I am also especially indebted to Prof. 
Dr. Julius Wortmann, director of the laboratory of plant physiology 
at Geisenheim, for his assistance in regard to every part of my 
inquiry and for instruction while working in his laboratory. From 
Prof. Dr. Richard Meissner, then assistant to Professor Wortmann, 
I received much personal assistance and kindly counsel. Prof, Dr. 
Paul Lindner, of Berlin, also extended courtesies at the Imperial 
High School for Fermentation Work, for which I am deeply indebted. 

Of the manufacturers in Germany I wish to especially remember 
the Brothers Freyeisen, of Frankfort, for permitting an examination 
of their work and factories in detail. Acknowledgments are also due 
to Mr. Fritz Batz, Neuenhain, Taunus, and Mr. C. H. Schmidt, of 
Schierstein, Rhinegau, for extending like courtesies at their factories. 

CLASSIFICATION OF CIDERS. 

Wines have long since become well recognized by specific names 
which, within limits, denote certain characteristics, more or less con- 
stant; but with the fermented juice of the apple in the past all has 
been cider, whether good, bad, or indifferent; and even yet only those 
who are well informed on the question are aware that there are ciders 
and ciders. 

To the fact that ciders have not in the past been developed on 
special lines and classified, we owe much of the misunderstanding in 
regard to the possibility of making a good beverage from apple juice; 
but to the fact that so much vilely adulterated or chemically concocted 
stuff is put on the market as a drink, we owe, in much greater degree, 
the general misunderstanding in regard to this product in our country. 

IN FRANCE. 

The French attempt to classify ciders as "pure juice," " marchand," 
and "boisson." To say that this classification is well observed is wide 
of the truth. The first named is intended to be pure cider of a special 
quality, made from the finest fruit. It should contain 6 or Y per cent 



16 

of alcohol, and may be made as still cider i. e., fermented '"dry" 
(sec); as "mousseux," cider bottled before all the sugar is exhausted, 
and so handled as to develop and retain a certain quantity of gas; or 
as cider " champagnise," which has received more special treatment 
than ordinary "mousseux" and often is, in fact, dosed with sugar to 
fortify it. 

The cider "marchand," or simply cider, should contain from 4 to 5 
per cent alcohol, and is made from fruits of medium quality; or, as 
more often happens, if rich enough, it is diluted by mixture of the 
second pressing with pure juice. This is the cider of commerce as it 
ordinarily leaves the manufacturer, but after it pays the octroi or 
tax and enters into consumption in the city, it may be, and often is, 
diluted and becomes quite a different article from that which leaves 
the manufacturer. 

The "boisson," as applied to a cider, means the juice of second or 
even third pressing of the pomace. It is fermented comparatively 
"dry," contains about 2 to 3 per cent of alcohol, and is the ordinary 
cider of the common people, especialh^ laborers in both country and 
city, in the cider districts. It is often furnished in large quantities to 
the farm laborers, and if so handled as to retain considerable gas, or 
artiticially charged, it is an agreeable light drink. "Boisson" is also 
very often called "petit cidre" (small cider). 

A poor cider is made from the unpared chopped American dried 
apples and from the dried cores and parings we sell to France, by 
treating this stock as follows: About 10 kilos (22 pounds) of the dried 
stock are macerated in a vat containing one hectoliter (about 26 gal- 
lons) of water with addition of some raisins or sugar to suit the taste 
of the manipulator, and this is then permitted to ferment slightly in 
mass to extract the desired substances, and the liquid is expressed and 
treated as in case of low-grade cider. The beverage made in this man- 
ner is restricted by law to 3 per cent alcohol content and is a cheap 
drink, used mostly at low-class restaurants and for laborers. This low- 
grade apple stock sent to France is also used to macerate with hard 
cider to restore in part its qualit}^ by inducing new fermentation; but 
not the slightest evidence was found to substantiate the supposition 
heretofore frequently advanced, that this poor apple stock, or that 
even good sun-dried apple stock is used to make French wines or to 
adulterate them. 

IN GERMANY. 

Cider is classified in Germany into common cider, or "apfel wein," 
"export apfel wein," and "champagner apfel wein." One also con- 
stantlj" meets with such names as "Speierling apfel wein," "Boers- 
dorfer apfel wein," and others. These grades of cider do not 
correspond closely with the classes or grades of French or English 



17 

ciders. These names are, in fact, more to be relied upon as having a 
definite meaning so far as the strength and purity of the article is 
concerned. 

The common cider of Germany is made just as they make ordinary 
light wines, and their cider is, in fact as well as in name, a wine. It 
will show from 3.75 to 4.50 or nearly 5 per cent of alcohol, varying 
with the character of the fruit, and the ordinary cider is a dry, light 
wine of very insipid taste to the American palate when not charged 
with carbon dioxid. These ciders are kept in casks and drawn as 
wanted. 

The "export apfel wein" is made practicall}'^ in the same manner 
from selected fruit, but is either bottled when there is still sugar 
enough to saturate it with gas or is saturated artificiallJ^ It may 
show 4.5 to 5 or 5.5 per cent of alcohol and is a still light wine. 

The "champagner apfel wein" or "schaum apfel wein" is much 
like champagne from grape wines. At a proper stage the cider is 
clarified, sugared, and bottled, and carried through the processes 
described hereafter. 

The "Boersdorfer apfel wein" is simply a name given to indicate a 
product supposedly made from the Boersdorfer apple, but it was not 
evident that this brand had any special qualities not found in a good 
export grade. 

The "Speierling apfel wein," however, is a cider niade by using a 
small proportion of the juice from the wild fruit known to botanists as 
Pyriis {Sorhus) domestica. This tree was found growing to giant pro- 
portions on the Taunus mountains about Soden. The fruit when fully 
ripe and touched bj^ frost becomes very mellow and has an agreeable 
flavor, but before ripening it is characterized by a pungent, acrid 
juice so rich in tannin as to remind one of the unripe American per- 
simmon in its effect on the mucous membrane of the mouth. The 
juice of this wild fruit is added to apple juice in small quantity, not 
over 5 per cent, and by reason of the tannin contained is thought to 
produce a finer cider, which is more easily clarified, and to furnish in 
the finished product a superior flavor and bouquet. (PI. I, fig. 2.) 

It can not be said that the German ciders appeal to the American 
palate, with the exception of their champagne ciders and the very 
finest of the other grades; but that they are well-made standard goods 
is most certainly true. 

In German}^ great quantities of fresh, partly fermented cider are 
offered at the restaurants in the fall season. This they call " rauscher " 
or "siiss apfel wein" (smoking or sweet cider). The brothers Freyei- 
sen stated that they sold ordinarily about 5,000 hectoliters of such 
cider each year in Frankfort during the making season. This would 
be about 132,000 gallons. 

17247 No. 7103 2 



18 

IN ENGLAND. 

In England a strong effort is being made to bring about a better 
understanding of the importance of grading ciders in accordance with 
some standard. But it could not be learned that any generally accepted 
classification had been adopted, further than that the Bath and West 
Society, which holds the only fair at which anj^ considerable exhibit 
of ciders is made in England, recognizes two classes, i. e., those show- 
ing 4 per cent of alcohol or more, and those which show less than 4 
per cent of alcohol. The latter are called small cider bj' their chemist, 
but this word is not accepted in the English trade. From analyses 
made by the United States Department of Agriculture of samples 
selected at Bath, at the annual show in May, 1900, it appears that the 
classification that year was not based on accurate chemical data, or else 
the samples were confused in handling. 

There were goods of both classes, bottled and in casks, and it appeared 
that the classification was rather artificial, being often determined, not 
by the quantit}" of alcohol a certain quality of juice will produce, but 
by the stage at which fermentation had been arrested. The analyses 
of ciders from the Bath and West exhibit of 1900 show conclusively 
that fermentation had not been normally carried out, but that it had 
been arrested by artificial means. 

In fact the cider of commerce in England, except in some few cases, 
has no recognized standard. There seems to be a very unwise effort 
to cater to a demand for a sweet liquor showing only 3 to 4 per cent 
of alcohol. If made from a good quality of fruit and unadulterated, 
such cider must still contain considerable unfermented sugar, which 
renders it very unstable and diflScult to handle in shipment, except as 
sterilized bottled goods, unless treated sufficiently with preservatives 
to check fermentation. There is another alternative equall}^ bad, 
namely, to ferment the juice dry, dilute with water, and dose with 
saccharin to produce the sweet taste desired. It was said that this 
was practiced, but no proof of it was seen. 

In England, however, excellent grades of bottled ciders were found, 
both still and gaseous. Some of these were made from special varie- 
ties of apples, as Foxwhelp, a very old English cider apple, or Kings- 
ton Black, but more often they were made from the mixed fruit of 
the district. Eight examples of these ciders are shown under sample 
numbers 32 to 39 (see p. 111). These were reall}^ fine ciders, some dry, 
some bottled with a small percentage of unfermented sugar, and others 
sugared in the process of champagnizing. 

A sparkling cider is not necessarily a sugared article, but, if pure, 
is best produced by bottling before fermentation is complete. It is 
then a normal French ''mousseux." This grade can, however, be 
produced by charging with gas artificially when bottled. A cham- 



19 

pagne cider is not, properly speaking, a pure cider, but is fortified by 
addition of sugar. 

It appears that even in the best cider districts of England there are 
no really accepted names for ciders which can be depended upon by 
purchasers. The name of the maker is practically the only mark 
worthy of consideration. This state of affairs, however, is in fair way 
to remedy itself, as the industr}^ is rapidly developing on special lines, 
and certain class designations, such as still ciders, sparkling ciders, 
champagne ciders (both dr}'^ and sweet), of approximate alcoholic 
strength, will soon come to be recognized in the trade. The Buhners, 
at Hereford, seem already to have reached a high degree of perfection 
in the preparation of their goods, and Mr. Charles Dacres Wise, at 
the estate of Lord Sudley, in Gloucestershire, was putting up a ver}'^ 
excellent grade of both still and sparkling ciders and perr}'^, the latter 
being made from the fruit of the pear. Nothing so interesting in the 
wa}' of a country plant was found as that of Hon. C. W. Radcliffe 
Cook, at Hellens, near Dymock, Herefordshire. This country gentle- 
man, an ex-member of Parliament, was personally devoting himself to 
the manufacture of cider in a small way, with the most primitive 
machinery, and yet producing a good sound article. It was, however, 
at Butleigh Court, the country seat of R. Neville Greenville, esq., 
that the best experimental work on cider manufacture found in Eng- 
land was seen. These establishments will be mentioned more fully 
under a subsequent head. 

PRINCIPAL CIDER-PRODUCING COUNTRIES OF EUROPE. 

When this inquiry in Europe was begun, the writer was somewhat 
imbued with the notion, so prevalent in the United States, that cider 
making could only be regarded as a secondary affair, a method of util- 
izing inferior fruit in the manufacture of a product of some local 
value, but not as an industry of general importance. However im- 
portant the saving of the low-grade or unmerchantable fruit might be 
to our growers, it had not seemed as though cider making could be 
ranked as a great industry. Interest in the matter had been mainly 
aroused by what seemed to be a scientific question of some moment, 
with fairly promising economic possibilities. 

RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF THE CIDER INDUSTRY IN DIFFERENT 

COUNTRIES. 

In England evidences were found of an industry fairly well founded, 
and in France and German}^ there exists a great industiy already well 
developed and employing millions of capital in the aggregate, with 
large areas of country devoted to growing cider fruits as an industrj\ 

France, by reason of the extent of its manufacture, is easily the 
leading cider country of the world, followed by Germany, England, 



20 

Switzerland, United States, Canada, Austria, Grand Duch}^ of Luxem- 
burg, and Spain, in order of importance." 

The acreage of orchards in France can not be stated with any cer- 
tainty, but from estimates^ of the total apple trees in Brittan}^ 
made by Frere Martial, of the Christian Brothers, of the Institute 
of Ploermel, it appears that in this province alone there are about 
24,500,000 trees, and as this province makes about one-third the cider 
of France, a like ratio would carry the total number of trees up to 
about 75,000,000 for the entire cider country. 

After sevei'al tours of the cider countr}^ of France the writer is pre- 
pared to believe that this grand total is not too high. In the Calvados 
country, at some places, the face of the countr}- is a forest of fruit trees, 
and frequently the highways are also planted on both sides (Plate II). 

The product of cider varies naturally with the quantity of fruit 
available from year to year, but the mean annual production of France 
for twenty years (1879-1898) was 297,946,030* gallons, and the maxi- 
mum product during this time reached 695,388,430 gallons in 1893. 
From the French Government reports it appears that 1,021,090 
persons were entered as manufacturers of cider in 1898. The 3'^ear 
1900 saw one of the greatest harvests ever known in France, and 
without doubt the fruit product surpassed all previous figures. 
Consul-General Hertslet, of the British consular service,^ reporting in 
May, 1901, says that the production of cider in the 68 departments of 
France, in which apples are grown for this purpose, amounted to 
647,000^000 gallons, in round numbers, from the apple harvest of 1900; 
but this estimate is doubtless not based on the final reports. 

The above figures as to production, except the last statement, are 
taken from those published b}'^ the French ministry of agriculture, 
and are in no sense complete as to grand total. They represent the 
quantity which finds its way into commerce, so as to be reported to 
the Government, but take no account of the enormous quantity locally 
consumed. Each family m the great cider provinces of Picardy, Nor- 
mandy, and Brittany, as a usual thing, makes its own cider or pro- 
vides for the same in such a manner that it does not enter into the 
figures reported to the Government. It is probable that the official 
figures include very nearly the total of pure ciders, but the " boisson," 
or low-grade ciders, are practically not represented in these statements. 

THE CHIEF CIDER-PRODUCING DISTRICTS. 

There are many statements current in the difierent countries of 
Europe as to the peculiar importance of certain districts as regards 

Truelle, address before International Congress on the Cider Industry, Paris, 1900. 
<* International Congress on the Cider Industry, Paris, 1900, pp. 72 and 87. 
<^ British Diplomatic and Consular Reports, Miscellaneous Series, No. 552, May 
6, 1901. 



Bu!. 71, Bureau of Chemistry, U. S. Dept. Agr. 



Plate il. 











f 


'u '^ 






% 






J'/ 


{' 


^ V 


m 


1 


1 




-.1 


1 


i 



Fig. 1. Cider-apple Trees by the Roadside, Normandy, France. 




Fig. 2. Glimpse into an Old Pear Orchard, Normandy, France. 



21 

the excellence of their ciders. These statements at once recall state- 
ments of like nature in regard to the quality of grape wines of certain 
districts. In the case of wines it can not be questioned that experi- 
ence has abundantly demonstrated the correctness of these claims. 
Soil and climate certainly pla}^ a very important role in the production 
of all fine wines. Do they play an equally important role in the pro- 
duction of ciders? The chemical data on varieties grown in different 
countries must in part answer this question. 

It was not found that any investigator had really undertaken a 
serious inquiry into this matter, and the manufacture of cider can by 
no means be said to have reached a stage of perfection which warrants 
definite conclusions of like value to those which govern wine making. 
It is very evident, however, that in certain districts where grapes will 
not grow to such perfection as to admit of their culture as a wine 
fruit, apples have for ages taken their place. European peoples are 
without exception consumers of wines in considerable quantity, some 
nations much more so than others. Hence, wherever the grape wine 
can not be successfully produced, there has been a more or less per- 
sistent efi'ort to supply the demand for wine by using a fruit which 
will thrive under local conditions. 

The French Cider Districts. 

In France the grape will not thrive in open culture to any extent in 
the northwestern and northern provinces. Hence the provinces of 
Brittany, Normand}^, and Picardy, lying in this part of France, are the 
chief seat of the cider industry. These lie along the Atlantic Ocean, 
the English Channel, and the borders of Belgium. 

Normandy is in fact the principal cider country of France, and it is 
here that one finds the industry best developed in all its details. Also 
in this province has been developed a large number of seedling varie- 
ties of apples with the sole idea of cider making, and, though the face 
of the country is often a forest of apple trees, one never finds dessert 
or culinary varieties growing in these open plantations. The idea of 
commercial apple growing, as developed in America, is wholly unknown 
to these people. If a proprietor desires table fruit it is grown in his 
garden on walls or trellises, or on the walls of his residence or out- 
buildings, always in the form of cordons, espaliers, etc. , never in open 
field culture. In fact, the orchard culture proper is for cider making, 
just as farther south in France the country is in places occupied with 
vinej^ards for wine making. 

The varieties are seedlings from the apples grown here for centuries. 
It is only during the last forty years that a study has been made of 
these various seedling varieties, and certain ones have been selected 
for propagation because of vigor, productiveness, and qualities desired 
in the processes of cider making. One finds certain varieties every- 



22 

where mentioned as the leading 'sorts, and these are largely propa- 
gated in nurseries. 

The orchards everywhere have the appearance so characteristic of 
seedlings of Pyrus w^Zw.s' (Plate III), and do not take on the character- 
istic appearance of American cultivated orchards. The trees are often 
scrubby, rough, and thorny, and so overgrown with moss and mis- 
tletoe that they seem to fit in well with the surroundings. The climate 
is oceanic, moist, and often dull from cloudiness, but never subject to 
great extremes of temperature. Much of the strictly orchard area 
in Calvados is found on a moderately elevated plateau, characterized 
by low, undulating ranges of hills, with decidedly moist valleys. 

In this connection some extracts are quoted from a work by M. de 
Beaumont on Normandy, in which he speaks especially of Calvados, 
the department in which, perhaps, better cider is made than in any 
other of France: 

CALVADOS. 

General aspect. Calvados lies with an exposure to the north and extends to the 
hills of the Department of Orne on the south, and comprises many valleys and 
extensive plateaus. These valleys, which are watered by six streams flowing from 
south to north, are separated from each other by chains of slightly elevated hills 
which decrease in height to the shore, where they are suddenly transformed into 
high cliffs of 30 to 120 meters (100 to 400 feet). Thriving, fertile, rich in prairies, 
this district offers many aspects of a charming country. 

The hills, the geological composition of which is very far from uniform, and which 
do not present the same characters in any two places, form three very distinct natural 
regions the cretaceous, the calcareous, and the granitic. 

The first comprises the eastern part of the department. Chalky formations dom- 
inate in the country known as *'le Paj's d'Auge," situated l^etween the frontiers of 
Eure and the valley of the Dives. The arrondissements of Pont 1' p]veque and Lisieux, 
almost entirely included in these limits, present vast chalky plateaus cut by deep 
valleys, showing a clayey or argillaceous deposit overlying the rock. 

The second region where the limestone (great oolite, inferior oolite, marls, and 
sandstone) predominates, includes the arrondissement of Caen and a ])ortion of those 
of Falaise and Bayeux. 

All that portion of the Department of Calvados which comprises the division of 
Yire, the southern part of Bayeux, the western part of Falaise, and the southern part 
of Caen, under the name of Bocage, has a peculiar aspect. Its granites, gray and 
reddish in color, its schists, its ai-id plateaus scarred with great blocks of rocks, its 
houses constructed of materials of somljer color, all present a rather melancholy 
aspect. 

Climate. Calvados, which is situated on the border of the sea and has no consid- 
erable elevations, enjoys a much milder climate than its geographical situation would 
warrant. It is part of the belt where the Seine or Parisian climate predominates, 
thus named because it is peculiar to the basin of the Seine, and particularly to Paris. 
In its general characteristics this climate is mild, but at the same time humid and 
variable. 

In spite of its low elevation and the frequent rains (one hundred and thirty-five 
days in a year) maintaining a chilly humid atmosphere, the climate of Calvados is 
very healthy, this department occupying the first rank in the relative longevity in 
France. The western part of the canton of Tsigny and the country situated at the 
mouth of the Sougnes and the Dives are less favored than the rest of the department. 



Bui, 71, Bureau of Chemistry, U. S. Dept. Agr. 



Plate III. 




Types of Cider-apple Trees in Normandy, France. 



'r'< 



23 

The spring here is cold and rainy, the fine season lasts for only a month and a half 
from June into August. 

The annual mean temperature of Caen is a little higher than that of Paris, which 
is 10.6" C. The winter on an average is less cold than at Paris and the summer is 
not so warm. The predominating winds come from the west, north, and south. 
Violent storms often desolate the fields at the time of the equinoxes. It rains oftener 
on the border than in the interior of the department. The rainfall is 74 cm. (29 
inches) annually, being not quite equal to the average in France, which is 77 cm. 
(30 inches). 

A student of the geology of Normandy, M. de Caumont, has pub- 
lished a remarkable statement in regard to the influence of the soil 
upon the quality of these ciders in which he says: 

The quality of the ciders produced upon different soils shows very great differences, 
as those who use these ciders have been able to determine by comparing the prod- 
ucts of several cantons. These ciders, like wines, are more or less strong, and one 
is able to preserve them a greater or less time, according to the soil upon which they 
were produced. 

If my observations have not deceived me, the presence of fragments of quartz and 
silicious (flint) rocks in the earth, is very favorable to the production of a good cider, 
that which above all has the most agreeable taste. Therefore, the best cider prod- 
ucts in the arrondissements of Bayeux and of Caen are produced upon the mottled 
sandstone soils, earths covered very often with a great quantity of alluvium, with 
nodules of quartz and flint, or upon the hard limestones and lower oolite soils of a 
limestone and clayey character, which are covered up themselves with fragments of 
quartz and flint, as near Cartigny and the environs of Tsigny, and several communes 
of the cantons of Crevise, Littry, etc. 

In the arrondissements of Lisieux and Pont I'Eveque the best productions are taken 
from the chalk formations covered with an argillaceous formation carrying flint 
nodules in quantity. * * * 

These numerous observations lead us algo to think that the apples harvested from 
a soil where lime is in excess, as upon the great oolite plains of Caen and of Falaise, 
are less sugary than these others which grow upon an argillaceous soil. The cider 
produced from fruits grown upon our limestone plains becomes acid at an earlier 
stage, and it is very inferior in quality to that made at Bessin and the regions of the 
chalk substrata like Lisieux and Pont I'Eveque. I have made these observations 
not only in Calvados, but in the commune of Orne, where the regions vary equally 
as much in their geologic characters as in Calvados. 

At Danestal, in Calvados, some days were spent during November 
observing the work of the small landed proprietors or peasants (Plate 
IV), and as this country is typical of the very best cider-producing 
area of France, the soil was carefully examined and its agricultural 
value ascertained. 

The soil on warm southern and southeastern slopes was very rich in 
the first reaches above the streams, but grew thinner very markedly 
toward the summits of the low hills. The best soil was a rich brown 
loam, showing abundant nodules of flint, and at a depth of 12 inches 
or more a grayish sand became predominant. Along the upper slopes 
a gray soft sandstone showed occasionally and seemed to dip down 
into the hills as though erosion had carried away what was once the 

Translation from manuscript notes furnished by M. Truelle. 



24 

higher levels. The abundance of flint nodules was everywhere a char- 
acteristic of the best lands. 

The best exposures were generally planted in fruit trees and covered 
with heavy sod, most of the orchards being used as pastures. There 
was very little land under cultivation in crops. 

The cold slopes were mosth^ thin lands and often seepy, and where 
set in orchards were decidedly inferior to southern slopes. The uplands 
varied in value from 500 to 1,200 francs per hectare ($40 to $100 per 
acre), and the richest valley lands were held at 4,000 to 5,000 francs 
per hectare ($300 to $400 per acre). These values lead one to wonder 
how anyone could carry on such apparently careless culture and con- 
tinue to hold lands of such value. 

The GermXn Cider Districts. 

In Germany as in France most of my time was given to specific 
investigations at those places which offered the greatest opportunity 
for practical and scientific work, viz, at centers where the bulk of the 
cider is made; hence, the Wiirtemberg cider districts of Germany 
were not inspected, but the related districts of Switzerland and a part 
of southern and central Bavaria were observed. In these nothing 
worthy of special mention was found. Everywhere, however, the 
wonderful opportunities for development which would be seized upon 
by a more versatile people were conspicuous. 

At Frankfort-on-the-Main is found the center of the German cider 
industry. Here two firms alone were making over 1,300,000 gallons 
of cider annually; and from Frankfort to Wiesbaden, along the slopes 
of the Taunus Mountains, one finds a continuous apple country with 
numerous small establishments for the manufacture of cider. The 
industry here overlaps into the wine countr}^, or Rhinegau proper, 
and extends even down to Schierstein, almost in sight of the world- 
famous Johannisburg wine district. But nowhere in Germany was 
found any area so peculiarly and distinctively a cider-producing coun- 
try as in Calvados, France. 

In German}^ the tendency seems to be away from the small peasant 
proprietor, and toward a factory system founded upon the very best 
and latest investigations of modern science, while in France this is not 
nearly so much the case. Possibly this fact, coupled with the well- 
known orderl}'^ and methodical habits of the German, may account for 
the fact previously stated in this report, that in Germany standai*ds of 
quality are better recognized than in any other European country. As 
already noted, the German considers his product a wine, calls it so, and 
makes it by certain definite methods. 

The only apple-growing districts of Germany which were examined 
were (1) the Taunus country in Prussia, stretching from Frankfort to 
Wiesbaden, and (2) the Rhinegau, which extends from below Wiesba- 
den to where the Rhine breaks throusfh the Niederwald below Riide- 



Bui. 71, Bureau of Chemistry, U. S. Dept. Agr. 



Plate IV. 





Homes of Peasant Cider Makers in Normandy, France. 



25 



sheim. The Rhinegau is not, properly speaking, an apple-growing 
district, as here the grape overtops everything in importance, but I 
found the cider industry well represented as far down the Rhine as 
Schierstein. 

The Taunus region is said by well-posted German students to be 
the best apple district in Germany. This district is not large, and 
comprises the western and southwestern slopes of the Taunus Moun- 
tains. The orchards occur occasionally even down on the more level 
drift soils of the floor of the Rhine Valley; but usually the flat lands 
along the Rhine are occupied by cultivated farm crops, or where spurs 
of the foothills jut down into the Rhine plain the}^ are oftener occupied 
by vineyards than by orchards. 

The Taunus Mountains are not high, being about 1,300 or 1,400 feet 
at Cronberg, and nowhere in this district do they rise above 2,000 
feet. They slope gradually to the foothills and alluvial lands of the 
lower levels, presenting gentle grassy slopes and rolling uplands, 
generally easy to till and presenting no difiiculties whatever for 
orcharding. The Rhine plain has here an elevation averaging about 
300 feet above sea level. 

The higher levels of the Taunus show some outcrops of shales, over- 
lying igneous rocks of great variety, as gneiss, mica, and feldspathic 
schists. The slopes occupied by the great orchards show a clayey 
soil, with much gravel intermingled, and, while not very rich, good 
care has kept it well supplied with humus and in good condition. 
The trees are of great size and vigor, and so far as observed, the 
fruit growers do not have to contend with the numerous insect and 
fungous troubles met in this country. The exposure is ideal for fruit 
growing in a country so far north; and, in general characteristics, 
this would be considered a typically tine orchard section. 

The Taunus country has climatic and soil conditions strikingly dif- 
ferent from those found in the French orchard country. This German 
district has a continental climate more like that found in America 
than that of France, and the whole environment is essentially like that 
of many American orchard regions. The character of the apples 
grown and their chemical composition are much closer to American 
types than to French. Many varieties are grown for culinary and 
dessert uses, and the low-grade fruit, along with some distinctly cider 
apples, is employed for cider-making purposes. 

In some places the orchards cover the hillsides, all types, ages, and 
qualities intermingled without much system. And here was seen for 
the first time the giant trees of Pyrus {Sorbus) domestica^ whose fruits 
are used to mix with ordinary apples to produce the highest grades of 
cider. The lowland orchards did not have the vigorous appearance 
of those on higher levels, and often those in flat fields were heavily 
cropped under the trees, while the uplands were usually in grass. 



26 

That the qualit}" of the German fruit is quite inferior for cider 
making to that of the best French fruit seems to be evident from 
chemical data given in this report. It does not appear, however, that 
the studies of the fruit and the ciders made therefrom in certain 
districts have been carried out with as much care, from the labora- 
tor}^ point of view, in Germany as in France, though German factory 
work seemed quite superior, as remarked above. There are certainly 
some verj^ important points awaiting investigation in regard to the 
effect of soil and climate upon the composition of apples and the result- 
ant qualities of ciders made therefrom. A comparative study of this 
sort on the German and French fruit would be interesting and yield 
data of much practical importance. 

The English Cider Districts. 

The wonderful variety of geological formations occurring in such a 
small country as England confuses the stranger and renders observa- 
tions somewhat difficult. However, after traveling twice over the 
chief fruit sections of the country, the writer was able to discrim- 
inate somewhat as to the character of the orchard lands. 

The best development of orcharding observed was in Hereford- 
shire, Worcestershire, and Gloucestershire. The second best was in 
Somersetshire, though Devonshire which has a rather better reputation 
than Somersetshire, was not visited. The general statement current 
in England is that the orchard counties are Herefordshire, Devon- 
shire, and Somersetshire, in the order named, but certainl}^ portions 
of Worcestershire and Gloucestershire should not be omitted from 
this category. . 

In the excellent monograph of Dr. Henrv Graves Bull, of Hereford- 
shire, on the Vintage Fruits," he points out that in the first two 
counties named the good orchard lands are situated on like geological 
formations, viz, the old red sandstone. In Herefordshire the great vigor 
and f ruitf ulness of the old orchards, on the fine rolling red lands, were 
specially noticeable, and the ciders made, especiall}' at Hereford and 
at Hellens, near Dymock, were as fine as one often finds. Equal praise 
can, however, be given to the fine cider and perr}' made on the estate 
of Lord Sudley, near Winchecombe, Gloucestershire. But as soon as 
one mounts the Cotswolds he is aware that he is off the fruit lands. 

The apple growing seen in Somersetshire did not impress one favora- 
bly, and the soil did not seem to produce anything like the fine trees 
observed in the more northern counties mentioned. It was rare, indeed, 
that the orchard plantings seemed to be placed with care, and the 
impression made was that as an industry there was no modern devel- 
opment perceptible. As to orchard growing in England, the best tech- 

A popular treatise based on Dr. Bull's great monograph, The Herefordshire 
Pomona. 



27 

nical work seen was that of the Toddington Orchard Company at Lord 
Sudley's place in Gloucestershire. 

Though there is much small fruit grown in Kent, one of the famous 
fruit counties of England, very few orchards of any note were found, 
and cider making is almost unknown. There are, however, in the 
county good, strong, retentive loam soils, which carry abundance of 
flint nodules and overlie chalk formations; as in the cider districts of 
France. 

In England, as in German}^, very little attention has been given to 
the development of cider fruits as such, though in the former there 
are numerous good varieties to start from. The bulk of the product 
is made from the refuse of those varieties which are grown for table 
and culinary uses. Yet distinctly cider apples are constantly met with, 
and a few cider varieties have recently been imported from Normandy 
and are gaining in favor. 

No definite statistics are available as to the production of cider in 
England, but Hon. C. W. Radcliffe Cooke, in a recent article in' the 
Nineteenth Century, draws the conclusion that the total annual prod- 
uct is not less than 100,000,000 gallons, having a maximum value of 
3,000,000 sterling, (nearly $15,000,000). 

CIDER APPLES. 

It is doubtless correct to say that there are few distinctly cider 
fruits grown in the United States at the present time. Formerly 
this class of apples received more attention. Scions of European 
cider apples have been distributed of late years by the IJ. S. Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, but there are as yet no orchards of apples or 
pears grown distinctly for the manufacture of cider and perry known 
to the writer. In this regard the United States is at present in 
pretty much the same category as German}. England is somewhat 
better off, as one finds there a few distinctly cider apples and perry 
pears in cultivation. France has, however, made long strides in this 
direction, as already noted. 

It is of prime importance to consider here what constitutes a cider 
fruit, and compare the products of several foreign countries with that 
of our own in this regard. 

There can be no question that the making of cider by the landed 
proprietors and peasants of France for many centuries from the seed- 
lings of Normand}^, Brittany, and Picardy ma}' be credited with fix- 
ing the attention of the more critical students and cultivators of recent 
years upon the best characteristics of the French cider fruits. In 
these ancient seedling orchards and their descendants have been deter- 
mined empirically the qualities which distinguish cider fruits (pommes 
a cidre) from table fruits (pommes a couteau) in France. 

Nineteenth Century, August, 1901, p. 276. 



28 

The work of the past thirty years in France has been directed to the 
task of sifting from these hundreds of seedlings (pommes sauvage) 
those which best embody the desirable chemical constituents and which 
also show the other desirable characteristics of hardiness, vigor, pro- 
ductiveness, proper season of blooming and maturit}^ of fruit, adapt- 
ability to certain soils, keeping qualities, etc. 

Among those who have led in the critical study of cider fruits of 
France might be named Messrs. Hauchecorne, de Boutteville, Truelle, 
Lechartier, Herissant, Power, Andouard, Hubert, Beaurepaire, Sequin, 
and many others. A greater amount of work by far has been devoted 
to a study of the chemical composition of varieties, their description, 
classification, etc. , than to strictly experimental researches upon cider- 
making problems proper. It seems that little is now to be desired, so 
far as relates to analyses, classification of varieties, etc., but that much, 
is wanting in the French work relating to real studies of soil and cli- 
matic influences and the practical problems of handling and working 
up the crop. Much has, it is true, been written on these problems, 
but there is a dearth of facts in such literature as is obtainable. 

The French cultivators have now a great number of what appear to 
be the best cider fruits in the world ready at their hands, and they 
owe a great debt of gratitude to the unselfish work of the gentlemen 
named above for their often unremunerated critical studies, made at 
the expense of much time and labor. In this regard M. Truelle, a 
pharmacist, of Trouville, Calvados, is perhaps the most shining 
example. 

There have been no such elaborate studies made of German cider 
fruits, nor of the low grades of commercial fruits so largely used in 
cider making in that country, although chemical data on the German 
fruits is not wanting. Professor Kulisch has made at the Royal 
School of Geisenheim somewhat extensive chemical examinations of 
varieties of apples. 

In England until quite recently no critical study of cider fruits was 
known, but now, under the auspices of the Bath and West Society, 
supplemented by a royal grant in aid, Mr. F. J. Lloyd, of London, is 
making chemical studies which have already advanced to a stage 
where they furnish very useful data for comparison. 

' IMPORTANT CHARACTERISTICS OF CIDER APPLES. 

The French students of this subject and also the French manufac- 
turers of cider rank the value of varieties in accordance with their 
content of (1) sugar, (2) tannin, (3) mucilage, and (4) acid. They also 
insist upon the fruits being of fine flavor and fragrant. To a stranger 
the most striking characteristic of manj^ of the French varieties is 
their delicate, bitter-sweet flavor, and the powerful and peculiar odor 
which they exhale when lying in bulk ripening. 



29 

The writer can not refrain from observing that apparently the 
French attach entirely too slight importance to the acid content of 
cider fruits. French apple must sometimes turns black as ink in the 
presence of air because of rapid oxidation of the tannin; yet it is easily 
shown that a higher acid content will prevent this. From some state- 
ments made it would appear that they consider 0.1 to 0.2 per cent of 
acid sufficient. 

The Germans rank the chemical constituents in importance as fol- 
lows: (1) sugar, (2) acids, and (3) tannin. They pay practically no 
attention to determining mucilaginous substances. Their apples are 
so different in character (as will be seen in later discussion) that these 
constituent elements may not be strongly developed in them. They 
also claim that nitrogenous and mineral compounds are important as 
nourishment for the j^east organisms. The acid content is considered 
important in Germany, and at Geisenheim the percentage of acid 
demanded is 0.6 to 0.8 per cent. While they insist upon the import- 
ance of tannin, they do not rate it so highly as the French. 

No English student of the subject appears to have discussed these 
points from an original standpoint. However, Thomas Andrew 
Knight was the first to call attention to the value of the densimeter as 
an instrument to test the quality of must. 

In the United States we have no technical literature of any moment 
covering this subject. It appears that Americans have proceeded on 
the idea that the sugars are the onl}^ substance of prime importance in 
an apple must. Tannin appears to be regarded as objectionable. Acid 
is apparently regarded as an element which it is necessary to eliminate 
as far as possible. The character of our fruits may have had something 
to do with this, but it is rare that our fruits show too much acid, and 
it is more to be noted that they seldom or never show enough of the 
very important element, tannin. 

Sugar content of the fruit. During the process of fermentation 
cane sugar and possibly some of the pectose bodies are converted into 
fermentable sugars, and practicall}^ the total sugar content of the apple 
is thus rendered subject to the breaking down process called fermen- 
tation. Pasteur's statement of the products resulting from the fer- 
mentation of fruit sugars per 100 parts is as follows: 

Per cent. 

.Carbon dioxid gas ( CO.^ ) 46. 67 

Alcohol 48. 46 

Glycerin 3. 23 

Succinic acid 61 

Matter consumed by ferment organisms 1. 03 

While this' statement is now disputed in some particulars, it is used 
here to indicate the probable results which may be expected from 
complete fermentation of the sugar content of any fruit juice. It is, 
then, from the sugars that all the alcohol is derived, and also the car 



30 

bon dioxid gas, the first being that which gives the strength to the 
beverage, the second that which renders it sparkling and piquant if 
retained in the liquor. The glycerin helps to give body and flavor 
to the liquor. It is derived partly from the alcohol and doubtless in 
part from the organic acids present in the must. 

Tannin,, or tannic acid, in the fruit. This is the substances readily 
recognized in unripe persimmons or in the bark tissues of oak trees. 
In fruits it tends to give a bitter taste and to pucker the mucous mem- 
branes of mouth and throat. It is undoubtedly the relatively large 
amount of this constituent which gives to the bitter-sweet apples of 
France their peculiar character. This element is of great importance 
in the composition of any fruit for wine and cider making purposes, 
because of its action in coagulating albuminous elements in the must, 
thereby assisting to clarify the liquor, its wholesomeness to the system, 
and its efl'ect in conserving a certain portion of the sugar from too 
rapid fermentation, thus adding ver}' materially to the soundness and 
keeping qualities of the beverage. The writer is inclined to agree with 
the French that this element is more important than the acid. Three 
to five parts per 1,000 of tannin (0.3 to 0.5 per cent) is a sufiicient 
quantity. American fruits fall far below this standard. 

Acids In the fruit. These exist in the apple and pear chiefly as 
malic acid, but possibly also as tartaric to a small extent. Their 
importance in a cider fruit is very considerable. If acid is not present 
in sulEcient quantity, the oxidation of the tannin will be so i"apid as to 
turn the must black, or blackening may even occur in the finished cider. 
Also the refreshing quality of a cider as a summer beverage is largely 
due to its acid content. American apples usually contain suflScient 
acid. 

Mucilage in fruit. The practice of determining this substance as 
mucilage in apple must seems only to be followed by the French chem- 
ists. Whether their determinations are comparable with the deter- 
minations of pectin by other chemists can not be here stated. These 
substances, give body to the cider and are important constituents of 
good cider fruits. 

COMPARISON OF CIDER APPLES. 

FRteNCH STANDARDS. 

It is a matter of unquestionable importance to compare the fruits of 
the three prominent European cider-producing countries with one 
another and with our home fruits as to chemical composition. The 
French students of the subject have attempted to set standards by 
which varieties should be selected. The following is quoted from M. 
Hauchecorne (''Le Cidre" p. 9), in which he gives what he has deter- 
mined to be an average composition based upon analyses of many 
French varieties: 



31 

Specific gravity 1. 067 to 1. 080 

Water per cent. . 80 

Sugar (fermentable) do 17. 3 

Tannic acid ^ do 5 

Mucilage or pectose do 1.2 

Free acids (organic) calculated as sulphuric do 107 

Earthy matters, etc do 893 

Total do 100. 000 

The same author continues (p. 119): 

Cider apples designed for making a beverage of superior quality, from the point of 
view of its hygienic quality and of its conservation in a commercial condition, should 
be prepared from fruits which yield a must of 1.075 density in order to obtain a 
sufficient percentage of alcohol. 

One should search persistently for varieties which show at least 5 parts of tannin 
per 1,000 and 12 to 15 parts of mucilage, this latter being desirable because of its 
value to give smoothness and body to the beverage. The acidity should not be less 
than 1.071 parts per 1,000 in order to insure a good fermentation, and the fruits 
should be fragrant. 

At the International Congress on Cider Fruits held at Paris October 
11-13, 1900, M. de Messenge de Beaurepaire, in a paper entitled 
"Principles which should serve as a basis for determination of the best 
varieties of cider fruits," enunciated the following- general principles: 

Varieties should be divided into four categories, according to the nature of the 
beverage desired, as follows: 

1. Varieties of apples or pears destined to make a delicate quality of cider or perry. 

2. Varieties destined for the manufacture of champagne cider or perry. 

3. Varieties destined to make a full-bodied, strong alcoholic cider or perry. 

4. Varieties for distillation of brandy. 

To whatever use one intends to put the fruit, all good varieties should satisfy the 
four following conditions: 

(1) Good flavor of pulp and juice. 

(2) A sufficient quantity of juice, falling not below 55 per cent of weight of fruit. 

(3) Good color of juice, above all with the apple, but not so important for the 
pear, as the juice of the latter is often quite pale. 

(4) Juice easy to extract from the pulp. 

He proceeds to particularize as to the chemical qualities of each 
categor}^ of fruits as follows: 

1. Cider apples and perry pears, for a fine and delicate beverage, should show a 
medium density, i. e., ranging from 1.057 to 1.064, and not exceeding 1.069; sugar 
content, medium, 12.5 to 14.5; tannin (maximum), 0.3 per cent; flavor, sweet, 
slightly bitter. The distinctive qualities should be a clearly deflned, delicate aroma 
and a sugary flavor. 

2. Varieties designed for champagne should be as above except that there should 
be absolutely no bitter taste. 

3. Varieties destined to make a strong alcoholic beverage should show density, 
1.065 and above; sugar, 14.3 per cent and above; tannin (minimum), 0.2 per cent 
and above, the more the better; flavor, unimportant, except that it must not be 
acid; strong and penetrating aroma; the controlling qualities being richness in 
sugar and tannin. 



32 

4. Varieties destined for making distilled liquor should show a minimum density 
of 1.070 and 15.5 per cent of sugar, the richer the better. The other characters noted 
do not play an important role in this category. 

If the density and sugar content given in the first category are only 
medium for French fruits, in what category can one place German and 
man}' American and English cider fruits ? The French have adopted 
a high standard in quality of fruit, and the chemical analj'ses reported 
by the numerous investigators bear them out in this position. Do 
these qualities result from peculiarities of soil, or have these centurj^- 
old seedling races of French apples acquired certain characteristics 
which can now be perpetuated in other lands by ordinar}' propagation? 
Can their seedlings, when grown in other countries, become the founda- 
tion stock of seedling races of apples which will show such wonderful 
richness in saccharine matter and tannin as their parent stocks? 

After thirty years of study along what these French investigators 
seem to consider preliminary lines, but which has yielded already the 
best technical literature in the world on the subject, the Association 
Fran^aise Pomologique appointed a commission, composed of its best 
scholars and cultivators, to undertake a critical study of all the data, 
and also to conduct an original investigation of all promising French 
cider fruits with a view to correcting the nomenclature and establish- 
ing a .standard list with authentic information as to quality and char- 
acter of fruit and character of plant, so that cultivators shall have a 
definite guide to aid them in making plantings. The fruit of each 
variet}^ selected for the standard list is reproduced in color for the 
bulletin of the association and modeled for the permanent collection. 
After four 3'ears of study this commission has made considerable prog- 
ress. On its organization at Mans in 1898, the commission adopted 
the following outline of points on which the varieties of fruits should 
be judged: 

(1) Vigor of plant. 

(2) Natural resistance of same to fungous and insect attack. 

(3) Fertility (productiveness). 

(4) Quality, based upon the richness of the fruits in useful substances, but, above 
all, upon its known practical value as a cider fruit. ^ 

Out of the immense number of French cider fruits the commission 
decided that only 40 or 50 varieties of apples should be admitted to the 
permanent list, and 8 or 10 of pears, and that each subsequent yesLV 
not over 5 or 6 varieties might be added to the list, and that these 
must be voted upon for three successive years before they could be 
considered as finally accepted. Up to the present the records only 
show 36 varieties of apples definitely admitted, and of these but 12 
have yet been voted for reproduction by colored plates and models. 

Condensed free translation from Proceedings of International Congress, Paris, 
1900, pp. 48-50. 
6 Bui. de I'Ass. Fr. Pom., 16: 35. 



33 



These 12 varieties represent perhaps the best known and most care- 
fully studied French cider apples. The chemical data which appear 
in the accompanying table have been collected from the bulletin of the 
Association Franyaise Pomologique. 

For most of these varieties a very considerable number of analyses 
are reported. Of these analyses the maximum and minimum deter- 
mination for each substance are given, and then the mean of all the 
determinations of each substance. While there are some very striking 
differences between the determinations given in a number of instances, 
yet it is perhaps fair to say that the mean results ought to be reliable 
for. the average composition of these varieties. Certainly no such 
elaborate data are at hand for the compilation of average composition 
of cider fruits of any other country. 

To one familiar only with our best Amefican varieties it is quite 
startling to note specihc gravity determinations reading as high as 
1.133 and total sugar 24.31, as shown by Saint-Laurent, and 1.134 
specific gravity, sugar 26.35, as shown by Bramtot. Rousse fails but 
little below these. The above figures are, it is true, the maximum 
given, but the means for sugar of these varieties 16.51, 19.05, and 
17.19 grams per 100 cc of must are so far above the averages of 
American or German fruits that the comparison is equally striking. 

The mean acid content is very low, falling far below the German 
theoretical mean desired. In tannin these varieties exceed by far 
those of other countries, but yet rarely show a quantity sensibly above 
the theoretical minimum of 0. 2 per cent demanded by the French stand- 
ard, and only in one case, Bramtot, reaching a mean which approxi- 
mates the theoretical maximum quantity desired under the French 
standard. 

The varieties in the following table are arranged in accordance with 
the French seasons for cider apples: 

Table I. Maonmum,- minimum, and mean composition of 12 French cider apples, 
specially selected as standard sorts by the Association Franqaise Pomologique. 





Num- 
ber of 
analy- 
ses. 




Specific 
grav- 
ity. 


Grams per 100 cc of must. 




Variety. 


Total 
sugar. 


Acid. 


Tan- 
nin. 


Muci- 
lage. 


Season of maturity. 


Blanc-Mollet 

Reine des Hatives . . 

Saint- Laurent 

Bramtdt 


13 
10 
21 
58 


[Maximum. 
{Minimum . 
[Mean 

[Maximum. 
{Minimum . 
[Mean 

(Maximum. 
{Minimum. 
(.Mean 

[Maximum. 
{Minimum . 
iMean 


1.0740 
1.0650 
1.0637 

1. 0820 
1. 0510 
1.0619 

1. 1330 
1.0610 
1. 0800 

1. 1340 
1.0600 
1. 0880 


16.71 
9.30 
13.48 

19.00 

9.30 

13.06 

24.31 
12.63 
16.51 

26.36 
9.41 
19.05 


.970 
.071 
.240 

.830 
.044 
.288 

.730 
.090 
.276 

.960 
.085 
.219 


.564 
.066 
.297 

.415 
.140 
.254 

.699 
.096 
.244 

1.055 
.133 
.529 


2.10 
.20 
.62 

1.00 
.25 
.61 

1.97 
.04 
.74 

1.09 
.01 
.35 


{First season Sept. 20 
J to Oct. 15. 

i Do. 

i Do. 

>Second season Oct 
J 15 to Nov. 10. 





17247 No. 7103- 



34 



Table I. Maximum, minimum, and mean composition of i2 French cider apples, 
specially selected as standard sorts by the Association Franqaise Pomologique Cont'd. 





Num- 
ber of 
analy- 
ses. 




Specific 
grav- 
ity. 


Grams per 100 cc of must. 




Variety. 


Total 
sugar. 


Acid. 


Tan- 
nin. 


Muci- 
lage. 


Season of maturity. 




3 


[Maximum. 
J Minimum . 
iMean 


1.0690 
1.0630 
1.0660 


14.92 
12.90 
14. 19 


.370 
.310 
.330 


.300 
.245 
.266 


1.65 

.62 

1.04 


>Second season Oct. 15 




1 to Nov. 10. 


Doux-Normandie . . . 


10 


(Maximum. 
^Minimum . 
[Mean 


1. 1010 
1.0.530 
1.0739 


18.32 
11.27 
14.80 


.385 
.080 
.186 


.210 
.061 
.119 


1.12 
.17 
.51 


VThird season Nov. 10 
1 to Dec. 1. 




17 


[Maximum. 
^Minimum . 
1 Mean 


1.1050 
1.0580 
1.0808 


24.00 
10.81 
17.19 


.810 
.105 

.282 


.395 

-.045 

.200 


1.45 

"".'ei" 


I Do. 






Ambrette . 


8 


[Maximum. 
^Minimum . 
[Mean 


1.0860 
1.0610 
1.0695 


19.00 
12.34 
15.48 


.520 
.079 
.177 


.302 
.079 
.165 


.68 
.10 
.31 


>Fourth season De- 




J cember and January. 


Argile 


31 


[Maximum. 
^Minimum . 
[Mean 


1.1)880 
1.0600 
1. 0725 


19.45 
12.61 
15.76 


.480 
.064 
.177 


.524 
.051 
.176 


1.71 
.02 

.85 


i Do. 


Bedan 


75 


[Maximum, 
minimum . 
[Mean 


1.0936 
1.0470 
1.0685 


21.94 
10.68 
14.89 


.397 
.015 
.140 


.825 
.008 
.196 


1.71 
.02 
.62 


i Do. 


Doux-Geslin 


33 


[Maximum. 
^Minimum . 
[Mean 


1.1070 
1.0530 
1.0791 


21.60 
10.80 
16.60 


.740 
.079 
.233 


.866 
.091 
.407 


1.60 
.12 
.46 


[ Do. 


Marabot 


13 


[Maximum. 
^Minimum . 
[Mean 


1.0870 
1.0570 
1.0670 


17.85 
10.81 
14.77 


.368 
.082 
.205 


.630 
.092 
.287 


1.28 
.20 
.67 


i Do. 


Average of 
means 


1.0725 


15.98 


.229 


.262 


.59 











a Taken from Power, Vol. II, " Best cider fruits." 

In addition to the list of 12 varieties shown in this table there are 
24 other varieties of apples already admitted to the standard list by 
the commission of the Association Fran^aise Pomologique, and 7 cider 
pears are provisionalh' admitted. Strange as it may seem, 2 of the 
varieties of apples admitted to the list (Frequin-Lacaille and Muscadet 
de la Sarthe) could not be identified in the present state of the nomen- 
clature so as to give the chemical composition of the must. Of the 
pears admitted provisional!}^ the analysis of but 4 could be ascertained 
with certainty from the literature examined. 

The chemical composition of varieties given in the subjoined Table 
II is largely taken from Volume II of Mr. G. Power's exhaustive 
treatise on the "Best cider fruits."" In every case where more than 
one analysis is noted the average is given from Mr. Power's work. 
Where but one analysis is noted, the figures are in every case except 
one quoted from Messrs. Sequin and Pailheret, of the National School 
of Agriculture at Rennes. One analysis that of the variety Havar- 
dais is quoted from the work done by Mr. Pic at the Practical School 
of Agriculture of the Three Crosses near Rennes. These two schools 
just outside of Rennes are now doing an immense amount of work 
on the investigation of cider fruits. When possible, the average of 
analyses covering a period of years is quoted. 



35 

Table II. Composition of French elder fruits admitted to the provisional list of the Asso- 
ciation Frangaise Pomologique. 



Fruit and variety. 



Num- 
ber of 
anal- 
yses. 



Specific 
gravity. 



Reducing 
sugar, 
total. 



Grams per 100 cc of must. 



Acid, as 
sulph- 
uric. 



Tannin. 



Muci- 
lage. 



Am^re (petite) 

Binet Blanc ou Dor6 

Binet Rouge 

Binet Violet 

CMrubine 

Doux-Amer-Gris 

Doux-Courcier 

Doux (petit) 

FrSquin-Audievre 

Fr^quin-Lajoye 

Fr6quin-Lacaillea 

Gilet-Rouge 

Grise-Dieppois 

Havardais 

Hommet 

Jambe-de-Lievre 

Joly-Rouge 

M6daille-d'0r 

Michelin 

Moulin-&-Vent 

Muscadet (petit) 

Muscadet- ou- Antoinette a . 

Precoce-David 

Tardive de la Sarthe 



Averages. 



Bill6a 

Carisiblanc .. 
Oheuneviere . 

Crapaud 

Croixmare.. 

Navet 

Souris 



1.0860 
1.0750 
1.0740 
1. 0770 
1. 0680 
1. 0850 
1. 0873 
1. 0572 
1.0700 
1.0600 



19.09 
17.13 
15.30 
14.00 
14.60 
18.64 
18.30 
11.69 
15.10 
12.80 



0.114 
.220 
.236 
.303 
.227 
.270 
.123 
.132 
.230 
.183 



1.0610 
1.0940 
1.0508 
1.0847 
1.0650 
1. 0670 
1.0900 
1.0710 
1. 0730 
1.0710 



12.29 
20.24 
11.76 
15.74 
13.42 
14.34 
18.60 
35.92 
16. 57 
15.16 



.395 
.118 
.079 
.164 
.264 
.185 
.216 
.183 
.293 
.228 



1. 0720 
1.0710 



16.28 
15.21 



.137 
.141 



1.0732 



15.55 



.192 



0.116 
.188 
.271 
.276 
.244 
.419 
.378 
.110 
.302 
.376 



.140 
.868 
.111 
.089 
.193 
.212 
1.107 
.432 
.350 
.210 



.259 
.213 



.289 



0.450 
.596 
.827 

1.756 
.621 
.347 

1.392 
.364 
.678 
.317 



.668 
1.130 
.604 
1 364 
.690 
.799 
.524 
.653 
.758 
.392 



.804 
.964 



.735 



Averages. 



1.0540 
1. 0742 
1.0677 



12.48 
13.91 
11.00 



.303 
.205 
.338 



1.0660 



16.00 



.251 



1. 0627 



13.09 



.274 



.256 
.034 
.027 



.665 



.246 



.283 
.936 
.246 



Trace. 



.366 



a Analyses not found. 



GERMAX STANDARDS. 



The Germans do not appear to have attempted a study of varieties 
of apples and pears for cider purposes in anything like the compre- 
hensive manner of the French students. It seems that the German 
cultivators have worked on other lines than those of the French. To 
an American it appears that ordinary orcharding in Germany is about 
as far advanced as it was in the United States twenty or thirty years 
ago, before the wonderful development of commercial orcharding in 
this country. There are many good varieties of grafted fruit, and 
these are cultivated at times in considerable areas, but neither orchard- 
ing for table fruits nor for cider fruits is well developed in Germany, 
except where the dessert fruits are grown in what we would call gar- 
den culture on walls, trellises, etc. 

The German cider fruits, so far as they can be differentiated from 
dessert fruits, are occasional seedlings of no peculiar character or 
special value. There are certainly no varieties to compare with the 
special varieties recorded in the French literature and shown at the 



36 



French pomological congresses. In fact, the Germans use their chance 
seedlings and the refuse of their table fruits for cider about as we do 
in America. But the grieat manufacturing establishments draw sup- 
plies by rail from Russia, Austria, and Switzerland in large quantities, 
and much of this fruit may be of a more special grade for cider than 
that seen growing in the Taunus and Rhinegau regions of Germany. 
These establishments also draw supplies from western France when- 
ever crop failures in nearer regions render this necessar3\ 

The chemical data on German varieties are also meager, or at least 
so scattered that nothing approaching full data could be collected dur- 
ing the time of the visit. Later correspondence with very reliable 
book dealers has failed to develop this information as fulh^ as could 
be desired. 

There are 53 different sorts or varieties of German-grown apples 
mentioned by Dr. Cluss" in his recent work on cider making in Ger- 
many. Of these 29 were analj^zed by Professor Kulisch at the Royal 
School of Pomology at Geisenheim. Out of 17 varieties analyzed by 
Professor Behreud at Hohenheim, Wiirtemberg, 13 seem to be sorts 
not included among those examined at Geisenheim. These doubtless 
fairly represent Wiirtemberg cider fruits. Dr. Kramer's anal^'ses of 
cider fruits at Steiermark, quoted by Dr. Cluss, give 11 out of 15 
varieties reported upon, which are not included in either of the above- 
cited lists. Thus we have 53 varieties represented in the following 
tables, which, from the German literature consulted, seem fairly to^ 
represent the range of German apples in the best cider districts. 

Director Goethe, of the Lehranstalt fiir Obst-und Weinbau at Gei- 
senheim, says the Schafnase and Rhine Bohnapfel in Nassau, the 
White and Red Treierischer wine apples in the Rhine provinces, and 
the Luiken and little Langsteil in Wiirtemberg are the best six Ger- 
man cider apples. 

Table III. Analyses of German cider-apple must made at Geisenheim, lS89-9p, by 

Professor Kulisch. ^ 





Specific 
gravity. 




Grams 


per 100 cc 


of musl / 


r 


Name of variety. 


Grape 

and fruit 

sugars. 


Cane 
sugar. 


Total re- 
ducing 
sugar. 


TotaW 
solids. 


Acid, as 

sul- 
phuric, c 


Kostlicher 


1.0451 
1.0470 
1.04% 
1.0532 
1.0533 
1.0549 
1.0591 
1.0605 
1.0642 
1.0681 
1.0869 
1.0495 
1.0560 
1.0538 
1.0540 
1.0492 


8.72 
7.80 
6.82 
7.19 
8.47 
8.69 
7.12 
8.36 
8.35 
9.94 
13.12 
8.80 
8.96 
8.26 
7.85 
9.03 


1.28 
2. 12 
3.71 
3.29 
2.31 
3.72 
5.46 
4.52 
4.64 
3.51 
4.49 
0.75 
2.32 
2.89 
2.65 
1.75 


10.07 
10.04 
10.73 
10.66 
10.90 
12.61 
12.87 
13.12 
13. 23 
13.64 
17.85 
9.59 
11.40 
11.30 
10.64 
10.87 


11.70 
12.20 
12.86 
13.80 
13.82 
14.24 
15.33 
15.69 
16.65 
17.69 
22.61 
12.82 
14.53 
13.96 
14.02 
12.75 


0.15S 


Edelroter 


.241 




.270 


Bohnapfel 


.716 


Gasdonker Reinette 


.541 


Winter-Rambour 


.087 


Schiebel-Taubenapfel 


.592 


Siisser Hoolart 


.138 




.526 




.665 




.687 




.692 


Kaiser Alexander 


.482 


Burchardts Reinette 


.351 




.424 


Schmidt-Reinette 


.409 



"Die Ai)felweinbereitung," Dr. Adolf Cluss, 1901. 
b Apfelweinbereitung. Dr. Cluss, pp. 24-25. 
Calculated at Blacksburg, Va. 



37 

Table III. Analyses of German cider-apple must made at Geisenheim, 1889-90, by 
Professor Kulisch Continued. 




Name of variety. 



Gelber Bellefleur 

Fette Goldreinette 

Langer Gr. Gulderling. 

Goldzeugapfel 

Muskat Reinette 

Ananas Reinette 

Griiner Fiirstenapfel. . . 
Winter Gold Parmane . 

JJunkapfel 

Leiehter Matapfel 

Champagner Reinette . 

.Canada Reinette 

Baumanns Reinette . . . 



Specific 
gravity. 



1. 0510 
1. 0458 
1. 0535 
1.0600 
1.0639 
1. 0724 
1. 0519 
1.0654 
1.0615 
1. 0516 
1. 0510 
1. 0667 
1. 0507 



Averages. 



1.0569 



Grams per 100 cc of must 



Grape 

and fruit 

sugars. 



7.38 
7.77 
8.62 

10. 32 
7.08 

11. 02 
8.65 
9.20 
9.79 
9.27 
7.87 
9.94 
8.44 



Cane 
sugar. 



2.12 
2.47 
3.19 
2.88 
6.17 
3.91 
1.74 
6.33 
1.95 
2.03 
2.85 
4.96 
2.44 



8.72 



3.15 



Total re- 
ducing 
sugar. 



9.61 
10.37 
11.98 
13.35 
13.58 
15.14 
10.48 
14.81 
11.84 
11.40 
10.87 
15.16 
11.01 



12.04 



13.24 
12.66 
13.87 
15.58 
16. .58 
18.82 
13.46 
16.89 
15.97 
13.37 
13.24 
17. 32 
13.16 



Acid, as 

sul- 
phuric. 



.504 
.255 
.611 
.482 
.453 
.372 
.767 
.402 
.789 
.402 
.643 
.655 
.329 



14.78 



.460 



Table IV. Analyses of German cider-apple must, 1890, by Professor Behrend, Hohen- 

heim, Wurtemherg.<i 



Name of variety. 



Specific 
gravity. 



Rheinische Schafnase 

Goldparmane 

Rheinisches Bohnapfel . . 
Gelber engl. Gulderling . 

Jane Hure 

Berner Grauchenapfel . . . 

Pomeranzenapfel 

Rother Eiserapfel 

Englische Spitalreinette . 

Kleiner Fleiner 

Carpentinapfel 

Kugelapfel 

Glanzreinette 

Trierischer Weinapfel . . . 
Koniglicher Kurtzstiel . . 

Kleiner Langstiel 

Casseler Reinette 



1.054 
1.056 
1. 057 
1.043 
1.066 
1.050 
1.059 
1.059 
1.072 
1.059 
1.068 
1.054 
1.063 
1.059 
1. 082 
1.056 
1.055 



Average. 



1.059 



Grams per 100 cc of must. 



Grape 
and fruit 
sugars. 



7.64 
8.07 
9.93 
6.62 

12.31 
6.79 
6.22 
7.06 
9.37 
8.81 
7.99 
8.40 
9.63 
8.66 

13.04 
8.97 

10.73 



Cane 
sugar. 



3.73 
4.82 
3.49 
2.63 
2.52 
3.44 
6.51 
4.37 
4.89 
2.48 
5.52 
3.31 
4.10 
4.54 
6.60 
2.95 
1.36 



Total 
sugars. 



11.37 
12.89 
13.42 
9.25 
14.83 
10.23 
12.73 
11.43 
14.26 
12.29 
13.51 
11.71 
13.73 
13.20 
18.64 
11.92 
12.09 



13.38 



a Obstweinbereitung, Antonio dal. Piaz, p. 88. 
Table Y. Analyses of German cider-apple must, 1892, by Dr. Kramer, Sieiermark.c^ 



Name of varietv. 



Muskatellerapfel 

Holzapfel, Spitz 

Holzapfel, rothgestrieft 

Holzapfel, rothgestrieft 

Hanapfel 

Steierischer Maschauzker 

Champagner Reinette 

Canada Reinette 

Weiser-Winter Taffetapfel 

Englische Winter Gold Parmane 

Rother Streifling 

Heiderapfel 

Damason Reinette 

Edelborsdorfer 

Gelber Weinapfel 

Average ; 



Specific 
gravity. 



1.047 
1.052 
1.053 
1.054 
1.067 
1.050 
1.043 
1.050 
1.044 
1.055 
1.051 
1.049 
1.068 
1. 055 
1.061 



1.053 



Grams per 100 cc 
of must. 



Total 
sugars. 



10.00 
10.50 
10.70 
11.00 
13.60 
10.10 

9.40 
10.10 

8.85 
11.10 
10.20 
11.10 
13.80 
11.10 
12.60 



10.94 



Acid. 



.64 



a Obstweinbereitung, Antonio dal. Piaz, p. 89. 



38 

Pyrus{Sorbu8) domestica. Strange to say, no modern German writer 
on cider making appears to notice this very important fruit, so largely 
used to tone German ciders. It is known popularly as the Speierling, 
Speierlingbaum, Speierling crab, etc., and is a native forest tree of 
central Europe, but was not observed in France. 

Whether it has been always intentionally planted in the orchards of 
the Taunus or is partly wild is doubtful, for it is not usually seeiji in 
the regular rows, but in odd nooks here and there. On the borders of 
mountain ravines it is a most beautiful and luxuriant tree 20 to 40 feet 
high and loaded in the fall with small pyriform fruits about half the 
size of Seckel pears. These become yellowish in color and fall to the 
ground late in autumn, where, after some daj^s, one can pick them up 
and eat them with considerable relish; but if plucked from the tree or 
eaten before the}^ become mellow, the result on the mucous mem- 
branes is about the same as that of biting a green persimmon. 

This fruit is gathered in quantity just at maturity and before ripen- 
ing begins, and it is then used to fortify the best grades of ciders. 
Either the fruits are crushed with the apples in certain proportions or 
are ground separately and the must added to apple must in definite 
proportions. The latter is believed to be the better mode of blending, 
and it is the one pursued in the large establishments of Freyeisen 
Brothers at Frankfort. They had great casks of this must in reserve 
in a very cool cellar more than 50 feet below the sfirface of the earth, 
which they were using to blend with the finest apple juice to make 
the high-grade " Speierling apfel wein." As nearly as could be deter- 
mined about 1 part in 20 of this must from Sorbus fruits was added to 
the apple juice. 

It seems astonishing, considering the great importance of this fruit, 
that no recent writer should have treated it in the German literature 
and that not a single analysis of the fruit or juice could be found. 
About a century ago J. L. Crist wrote quite comprehensively of its 
use in making wine and in blending with apple juice, but gave no 
chemical data. It is supposedly used at present to tone up German 
ciders in tannin, thus adding piquancy and flavor to the product. The 
sugar content of the fruit could not be ascertained. Director Goethe, 
of Geisenheim, kindly furnished an article written by G. W. Eiche- 
nauer, of Cronberg, Taunus, in which he discusses this fruit from a 
gardener's standpoint, but does not give critical data on its composition. 
He states that cider made by properly blending it with ordmarj' stock 
is worth twice as much as it would have been otherwise and will keep 
much longer. If it is the tannin principle alone which makes this 
fruit so valuable, certainly it is time' we in the United States looked 
more to the selection of varieties rich in this substance or resorted to 
wild fruits, such as the native persimmon, Dyospyrus virginiana^ to 
obtain it. 



39 



ENGLISH STANDARDS. 



Any attempt to study the cider apples of England, or table varieties 
for that matter, is greatly complicated by the endless maze of names 
of similar orthography which have been given to apples, both cider 
and table varieties, and by the fact that there is no recognized 
authority on the nomenclature of orchard fruits in the entire country. 
Every local community appears to delight in applying names of its own 
choosing to the fruits grown, and there seems to be no general dis- 
position to reduce the nomenclature to a system under some competent 
authority, as for instance, a national committee on pomological nomen- 
clature. Of recent writers on pomolog}^ in its broader sense, there 
are very few, but the older works, as those of Knight, Marshall, 
Evelyn, and others are classics of their time. 

The best modern treatment of the subject of pomology, in a some- 
what limited sense, which was secured is The Apple and Pear as Vin- 
tage Fruits, by Robert Hogg, LL. D., and Henry Graves Bull, M. D., 
a charmingl}^ prepared general dissertation upon the subject of cider 
and perr}'^ making, with critical notes and cuts showing many varieties 
of cider fruits. In the way of recent literature, the Bath and West 
Society deserves great praise for the efforts it is making to develop a 
reliable literature on modern cider making. In fact, it is putting forth 
an effort to arouse the popular interest so necessary to the future 
progress in pomology as an art, and more specifically as it relates to 
cider making as an important industry. 

However, in this literature it does not appear that a successful 
attempt has been made to establish a standard toward which the grow- 
ers of cider fruits should direct their attention. The nearest approach 
to a standard as to quality of cider fruits which was found in the 
works mentioned is in the report of the committee of the Woolhope 
Club, which visited the congress of the pomological societies of France, 
at Rouen, in October, 1884. When this committee determined to 
select a set of French varieties of apples for introduction into Here 
fordshire they laid down the following rules: '^^ 

(1) The fruit must possess the very best quality of juice. 

(2) The trees must be hardy, vigorous, and fertile. 

(3) They must bloom at varying intervals. 

(4) The fruit must attain maturity in late autumn or winter. 

(5) The varieties must have obtained the highest reputation in the Norman 
orchards. 

The fact that these gentlemen from Herefordshire recognized the 
importance of securing some of the best Norman varieties of cider 
apples for introduction into England indicates that some of the best 
English growers are alive to the importance of producing fruit of 
high quality for the upbuilding of the cider industry. But such apples 
are already very common in England. The oldest English writers tell 

a Hogg and Bull, Vintage Fruits, p. 88. 



40 

us of fruits yielding must of 1.091 specific gravitj% which, if correct, 
is hardly surpassed in our day in any countr3\ 

There is a large group of varieties of apples cultivated in England 
chiefly for cider, the names of which are made up of some English 
word' prefixed to the word Norman or Jersey- , as Cherry Norman, 
Broad-leaf Norman, Chisel Jersey, Red Jersey, etc. These apples all 
possess the peculiar bitter-sweet taste which characterizes so distinctly 
many of the most famous French cider apples. An interesting ques- 
tion arises in this connection as to whether these apples are ancient 
importations from Normandy and the Channel Islands. In the work on 
Vintage Fruits, quoted above, the opinion is given that they are not. 
This is based on comparisons made in 1884 at the congress of Rouen; 
which really prove nothing further than that they are not recent 
importations. It appears, after extensive comparisons, that this 
peculiar race of apples so common in Normandy has had a common 
origin, either in England or in France, indications all pointing to the 
latter country. Interchanges between England and the mainland have 
been such for man}' centuries that the parent stocks of the present 
race of bitter-sweet apples in England ma}' very easily have been 
derived from French sources. Then there is the other argument, 
that all the historicall}' old English cider apples, like Foxwhelp and 
Red Streak, which go back some two centuries in the literature, give 
no hint, either in chemical composition or quality, of common origin 
with the bitter-sweet varieties of France. 

From what was seen of these fruits in England it appears that if 
seedlings had been freely grown from them and well selected, as in 
France, England would to-day have as good a race of cider apples as 
France has. 

But are the bitter-sweets so essential? This question is not settled. 
In Germany scarcely a trace of thiy peculiar quality was found in the 
cider fruits, yet they make most excellent cider in Germany. Also 
m Gloucestershire and Herefordshire, England, most excellent ciders 
were sampled, in whose making no particular attention was paid to the 
usmg of bitter-sweet fruit. The question is an important one, and, 
with a view of giving it ample study, the writer has procured and is 
growing a collection of French and English cider apples representing 
the bitter-sweet and other old t3^pes. 

It has been necessary to examine a considerable mass of data in the 
attempt to select a representative list of English cider fruits. Mr. F. 
J. Lloyd has examined and reported upon such a large number of 
varieties in his work for the Bath and West Societ}^ that it is possible 
to use but a small fraction of his data. Hence an attempt has been 
made to select a set of \'Virieties which shall represent the old renowned 
cider fruits and the more recent sorts which are coming prominently 
into notice. Among the varieties selected, the Blenheim Orange, 
which is an old popular variety grown for general purposes, and used 



41 



as a cider fruit also, has been selected for special presentation. Fox- 
whelp is the oldest, historically, of famous English cider apples, and 
Kingston Black is a very prominent recent variet3^ The others rep- 
resent the English-grown bitter-sweet apples, and a number of them 
are given because of their present prominence. However, no variety 
known to be of recent French introduction is used in the table, though 
several of these recent introductions are now beginning to figure in 
the English cider factories. 

The chemical data are taken wholly from Mr. F. J. Llo3"d's analyses, 
published in the reports of the Bath and West Society. The writer 
has compiled from his data analyses covering as many years as could 
be obtained for each of those varieties selected to represent English 
cider fruit. 



Table VI. Analyses of English cider an 


iples by 


Mr. F. 


/. Lloyd. 






Year. 


Specific 
gravity. 


\/ Grams per 100 cc. 


Variety. 


Total 
solids. 


Total 
sugars. 


Fruit 
sugars. 


Cane 
sugar. 


Acid, as 

sul- 
phuric.a 


Tannin. 


Blenheim Orange 


1897 
1898 


1.0683 
1.0674 


16.64 
15.66 


14.35 
14.04 


10.00 
10.64 


4.14 
3.24 


0.577 
.424 


140 




.078 


Average 


1.0678 


16.15 


14.19 


,10.32 


3.69 


.500 


109 




1897 
1898 




Broadleaf 


1.0578 
1. 0612 


14. 22 
14.62 


12.50 
13.25 


10.64 


a 


.172 
.234 


.300 
.302 


Average 


1. 0595 


14.42 


12.87 


m 


m 


.203 


301 




1898 

1897 
1898 
1899 




Cherrv Norman. ... 


1.0636 


15.82 


13.26 


11.11 


2.05 .277 


310 






Chisel Jeri^ey 


1.0542 
1.0682 
1.0611 


13. .50 
17.06 
15.68 


12.90 
15.96 
14.84 


11.11 

14.08 
11. 90 


1.71 
1.79 
2.80 


.226 
.226 
.234 


264 




.370 
.174 


Average 


1.0612 


15.41 


14.57 


12.36 


2.10 


.228 


269 




1895 

1897 
1898 
1899 




Foxwhelp 


1.0565 


13.84 


12.98 


() 


(b) . 146 


230 






Kingston Blaclt 


1.0606 
1. 0691 
1.0667 


14.86 
16.90 
16.64 


14.06 
15.37 
14.84 


10.64 
10.84 
11.90 


3. 24 . 351 
4. 31 . 416 
2. 80 . 446 


126 




.182 
.110 


Average 


1.0654 


16.13 


14.75 


11.12 


3. 45 . 404 


139 




1897 
1898 
1899 




New Cadbury 


1.0539 
1. 0642 
1.0601 


12.68 
15.68 
14.00 


10.82 
14.81 
12.66 


9.06 

12. .50 

8.76 


1.68 


.702 


174 




2.20 
3.74 


.226 
.174 


.232 
.122 


Average 1 . 


1. 0594 


14.12 


12.76 


10.77 


2.54 


.367 


176 




1897 
1898 
1899 




Red Jersey 


1. 0596 
1.0611 
1.0667 


14.50 
14.98 
16.76 


14.03 
13.94 
13.46 


10.87 
12.04 
12.18 


3.01 
1.85 
1.22 


.219 
.226 
.204 


124 




.314 
.230 


Average 


1.0625 


15.41 


13.81 


11.70 


2.03 


.216 


.223 




1896 
1897 
1898 




White Jersey 


1. 0581 
1. 0519 
1.0642 


14.68 
12.68 
15. 74 


13.25 
12.26 
14.00 


8.65 
11.62 


3.43 

2.26 


.160 
.190 
.307 


.150 




.210 
.114 


Average ^ . 


1.0580 


14.36 


13.17 


10.13 


2.84 


.219 


158 




1897 
1898 
1899 




Butleigh No. 14 


1. 0790 
1. 0933 
1.0925 


20.24 
23. 22 
24.34 


18.58 
20.51 
23. 32 


13.18 

18.18 
18.88 


4.94 
2.22 
4.22 


.153 
.292 
.351 


300 




.380 
.206 


Average 


1.0883 


22.59 


20.73 


16.75 


3.79 


.265 


.296 








General average 


1.0642 


15. 82 


14.30 


11.65 


2.77 


.282 


.221 









a Calculated at Blacksburg, Va. 



6 Only total sugars given. 



42 



AMERICAN STANDARDS. 



Early in the nineteenth centuiy much interest was manifested in the 
United States in the culture of cider apples, and in the manufacture 
of this beverage at a few points. Perhaps Newark, N. J. , was one of 
the most noted centers of this infant industry. In New England, how- 
ever, the cider fruits were cultivated, and the Massachusetts Agricul- 
tural Societ}'^ showed considerable interest in encouraging these efforts. 
From scraps of information and brief references, it also appears that 
Virginia planters were interested, and rated good cider highly. 

William Coxe was one of the first to write on this subject, so far as 
the early literature available shows. His treatise on Fruit Trees is 
dated 1817, and in it he speaks of the high quality of Hewes Virginia 
Crab and the Harrison apple for cider making. The latter is of New 
Jersey origin, and helped to make the quality of New Jersej^ ciders 
recognized in the earh' days of our histor3\ Coxe also mentions the 
Newtown Pippin and Winesap, both well recognized to-day as yielding 
cider of high quality, but lacking in the element of tannin. The 
HagloeCrab, an old English cider crab, is constantly mentioned in 
the early literature, and the Vandevere is also spoken of as a cider 
fruit. 

In the change of habits which came over our people about the mid- 
dle of the past century, cider gradually lost its place as a beverage, 
used alike by the well-to-do and the laboring classes, and the art of 
making it seemed to fall into desuetude. The country people and a 
number of large commercial establishments have continued to make a 
beverage from apple must, but, in the main, it is very inferior in 
quality. Even the varieties of fruit best suited for making this bev- 
erage have almost been lost to our pomolog}-, and later writers rarely 
mention them. Yet it can scarcely be contended that our people use 
less fermented beverages or less ardent spirits than formerly. 

The early American writers of consequence are Coxe and Thatcher, 
and these gentlemen did little more than copy the best English and 
French writers of their time, weaving in some local experience. Of 
real technical studj^ there was none. The writings of Thomas Andrew 
Knight, and articles in Willich's Domestick Encyclopedia, furnished 
the basis of these early dissertations. Many of the principles laid 
down by these old writers contain the germ of the best practice of the 
present day. Strangely enough, the new encyclopedia of horticulture 
(Bailey's) does not contain the word cider as a subject. 

It has already been stated that we have not at present in the United 
States a distinct industry in the growing of cider fruits. Yet it is 
true that some of our crab apples, and some varieties of apples also, 
have been cultivated to a limited extent for cider and are considered 
valuable for this purpose, but it is seldom that they are grown to any 
large extent. 



43 

So far as the writer has learned there is no technical literature deal- 
ing especially with the chemistrj^ of American apples, either for cider 
production or the manufacture of other products. Hence, at present 
it is not possible even to suggest a standard composition for American 
fruits used in making cider. Even partial analyses of the old fruits 
mentioned above could not be found, save of Hewes crab. Such anal- 
3^ses as have been made, up to a very recent date, are fragmentary and 
incomplete, and little attempt has been made to collect them. In 1886 
Mr. Edgar Kichards, then an assistant chemist of the United States 
Department of Agriculture, made analyses of the whole fruits of 16 
varieties of apples, and the results of his analyses are given below, so 
far as they concern this inquiry. These results can not be incorpo- 
rated in the tables of average composition of must from American 
apples because the fruit and not the expressed juice was analyzed: 

Table VII. Analyses of whole fruits of apples by Edgar Richards, Division of Chemistry, 
U. S. Department of Agriculture, 1886. 



Varietv. 



Fall pippin 

Smokehouse 

Maiden Blush 

Northern Spy 

Ben Davis . ... 

King 

Smith Cider 

Ram bo 

Blush pippin 

Paradise Sweet . . . 
English Redstreak 

Winesap 

Nonesuch 

Golden pippin 

Lobster White 

Virginia crab 

Averages.'. . . 



Total 
solids. 



Per cent. 
12.81 
12.26 
12.00 
13.43 
14.14 
14.11 
13.49 
15.40 
13.17 
14.68 
13.43 
16. 55 
14.58 
12.95 
10.60 
13.66 



13.57 



Total 
sugar. 



Per cent. 
10.14 
10.72 

9.79 
10.41 
10.63 

8.55 

8.99 
11.75 

8.66 
10.61 
11.04 
11.90 
12.02 
10.03 

9.84 
12.90 



10.49 



Reducing 
sugar 



Per cent. 
7.40 

10.30 
8.80 

10.25 
8.00 
7.55 
8.32 
9.67 
8.43 
7.52 
8.63 
9.40 

10.80 
7.69 
6.89 

10.24 



8.74 



Sucrose. 



Per cent. 

2.60 

.40 

.94 

.15 

2.50 

.95 

.64 

1.98 

.22 

2.94 

2.29 

2.38 

1.16 

2.23 

2.81 

2.53 



1.67 



Acid as 

sul- 
phuric. 



Per cent. 
0.577 
.468 
.767 
.395 
.395 
.314 
.453 
.292 
.863 



138 



.395 
.490 



.607 
.285 
.409 



.457 



Ash. 



Per cent. 
0.354 
.262 
.245 
.291 
.283 
.231 
.275 
.295 
.353 
.236 
.325 
.279 
.228 
.249 
.2.=)5 
.240 



.274 



Recently, however, the Pennsylvania Agricultural Experiment Sta- 
tion has taken up this line of work, and during 1899 Mr. C. A. Browne, 
jr. , made a fairly complete study of 25 varieties of apples grown mostly 
upon the agricultural college farm. Center Count}^, Pa. 

His work was first published as Bulletin No. 58, Pennsylvania 
department of agriculture, December, 1899. From this source are 
quoted the data derived from Mr. Browne's analyses as to the average 
composition of the whole fruit of these 25 varieties of apples: 

Inorganic matter: Per cent. 

Water 83. 57 

Ash 27 

Organic matter: 

Total solids 16. 43 

Invert sugar (grape and fruit sugar) 7. 92 

Cane sugar (sucrose) 3. 99 

Total reducing sugar (after inversion ) 12. 12 

Acid, as malic (free) 61 



44 



The points in the above which interest cider makers are the total 
sugars, which, when the cane sugar is converted into reducing sugar, 
show an average of 12.12 per cent of fermentable sugar. This is 
undoubtedly a high average for American apples. The free acid, 0.61 
grams per 100 grams of fruit, is also high, nearly reaching that of the 
German apples and being 0.2 to 0.4 grams above that of the French. 
The tannin was not determined. On page 29 of the same bulletin Mr. 
Browne gives the anal^'^ses of the fresh must as expressed from the 
fruit of 10 varieties of apples, including a number of the best-known 
summer and winter sorts. This table is quoted in part below. 

Table VIII. Analyses of must of American apples by C. A. Broivne, jr., Pennsylvania 
Agricultural Experiment Station, 1899. 



Variety. 



Red Astrachan 

Early Harvest 

Yellow Transparent 
Early Strawberry . 
Sweet Bough. 
Baldwin 
Ben Davis. 
Belleflower 
Talpahocken 
Unknown variety. 




Grams in 100 ec of must. 



Total 

reduc- Invert 

ing sugar. 

sugar. 



10.69 
11.67 
10.24 
9.90 
10.85 
15.39 
11.16 
13.61 
12.95 
12.95 



Averages 1. 05523 13. 36 i 11. 94 



6.87 
7.49 
8.03 
6.47 
7.61 
7.97 
7.11 
9.06 
9.68 
10.52 



7.78 



Acid as 
Cane sul- 
sugar. phu- 
ric.b 



3.63 
3.97 
2.10 
4.21 
3.08 
7.05 
3.85 
4.32 
3.11 
2.31 



.833 
.658 
.628 
.570 
.073 
.487 
.336 
.424 
.190 
.321 



3.76 



.453 




0.37 
.28 
.27 
.24 

!26 
.28 
.28 
.24 
.26 



.27 



a Corrected by author's request factor, 0.0014. 



' Calculated at Blacksburg, Va. 



The average sugar content in 100 cc of apple must for the 10 vari- 
eties given, as shown ^y Browne's table, is 11.94 grams reducing 
sugars, which for practical purposes may be read per cent. This is a 
low sugar content even compared with German averages. The average 
acid, 0.62 grams in 100 cc of must, is high. From must of this aver- 
age composition one might expect to produce a cider of 5 per cent 
alcohol, with still a little sugar left unfermented. With such must 
undiluted, there is no reason to say that a cider of proper strength 
can not be produced. 

In the department of horticulture of the Virginia Agricultural 
Experiment Station the writer has for the past fourteen years been 
bringing together a large collection of pome fruit trees, more espe- 
cially of apples. This collection now contains 375 varieties of apples, 
including crabs, collected from various portions of America and 
Europe. Man}^ of these are now coming into full bearing, and Prof. 
R. J. Davidson, chemist of the station, has begun an exhaustive 
investigation of the chemical composition of the fruits. This inves- 
tigation is not undertaken solely with a view to studying cider making, 
but for the general purpose of accumulating scientific data for our 
studies of these fruits in all lines as commercial fruits and as raw 



45 



material for the manufacture of various products. The following 
tabular statement furnished by Professor Davidson is useful here for 
the further consideration of American standards and for comparison 
of foreign and American v^arieties : 

Table IX. Analyses of apple must by M. J. Davidson, Virginia Agricultural Experi- 
ment Station, Blackshurg, J.901. 




English crab 

Hyslop 

Kentucky Cider crab 

Maiden Blush 

Montreal Beauty 

Averages 



0.060 



APPLES. 



Albemarle pippin 

Arkansas (Black Twig) 

Baltzby 

Ben Davis 

Bonum 

Emperor Alexander. . . 

Eureka 

Gano 

Lawver 

Ley 

Mann 

Nero 

Northern Spy 

Peck Pleasant 

Ridge pippin 

Rome Beauty 

Sharp 

Smith Cider 

Stark 

Tolman Sweet 

Walbridge 

Willow Twig 

Yates 

York Imperial 

Averages 



1.062 


11.48 


9.40 


6.14 


3.10 


0.30 


1.051 


12.05 


10.86 


7.00 


3.67 


0.30 


1.046 


10.76 


8.76 


6.23 


3.35 


0.47 


1.046 


10.69 


6.74 


5.06 


1.60 


0.32 


1.060 


14.23 


11 37 


7.72 


3.47 


0.27 


1.060 


13.78 


10. 52 


9.24 


1.22 


0.46 


1.057 


13.19 


10.00 


7.10 


2.76 


0.61 


1.046 


10.16 


8.61 


5.53 


2.93 


0.30 


1.049 


11.96 


9.91 


8.05 


1.76 


0.34 


1.052 


11.76 


7.08 


5.43 


1.-57 


0.37 


1.061 


14.08 


10.35 


7.43 


2.77 


0.42 


1.046 


10.61 


8.58 


6.77 


1.72 


0.26 


1.053 


11.73 


8.82 


5.36 


3.29 


0.50 


1.054 


12.60 


10.23 


6.32 


4.66 


0.35 


1.051 


11.73 


8.66 


4.69 


3.77 


0.32 


1.048 


11.37 


8.70 


6.24 


2.17 


0.27 


1.051 


11.96 


10.00 


8.09 


1.81 


0.50 


1.062 


13. 31 


9.93 


8.63 


1.24 


0.48 


1.058 


15.05 


13.31 


9.26 


3.86 


0.42 


1.055 


12.42 


9.76 


5.98 


3.69 


0.15 


1.051 


11.57 


9.18 


7.94 


1.18 


0.44 


1.053 


12.11 


9.12 


6.87 


2.14 


0.63 


1.052 


12.33 


10.00 


6.79 


3.05 


0.34 


1.050 


11.91 


10. 12 


7.08 


2.89 


0.22 


1.053 


12.19 


9.58 


6.78 


2.65 


0.35 



0.022 
0. 021 
0.015 
0.022 
0.002 
X).030 
0.030 
0.026 
0.032 
0.017 
0.016 
0.030 
0.026 
0.016 
0.030 
0.030 
0.018 
0.026 
0.013 
0.024 
0.022 
0.028 
0.018 
0.018 



0.022 



These analyses are the results of but one season's work, and hence 
do not warrant extended discussion or comparisons with the analyses of 
fruits from other sections of this country or from foreign countries. 
It is distinctly noticeable that the crabs show a better analysis as cider 
fruits than the apples. In this latter list, however, there are no dis- 
tinctly cider varieties. While there are a large number of these special 
sorts in our plantations, none have yet fruited. A number of analyses 
of fruits from the station orchard were made at the Bureau of 
Chemistry, United States Department of Agriculture, and these are 
here inserted, forming Table X. The averages of specific gravity 
readings at the two places are remarkably close, but in other points 
there are differences to be accounted for, partially at least, by the 
fact that the varieties examined in the two laboratories were only in 
part the same. 



46 



Table X, 



of apple must by J. S. Burd, Bureau of Chemistry, United States 
Department of Agriculture, 1901. 



Variety. 







3rams per 100 cc 


of must 




Per 

cent of 

ash. 


Specific 
gravity. 


Total 
solids. 


Total 
sugar. 


Redu- 
cing 
sugar. 


Cane 
sugar. 


Acid, as 

sul- 
phuric. 


1.0514 


13.64 


11.72 


5.40 


6.01 


0.45 


0.25 


1.0585 


14.93 


11.36 


9.46 


1.81 


0.38 


0.26 


1.0534 


14.72 


11.35 


6.25 


4.84 


0.31 


0.25 


1.0594 


15.27 


11.12 


7.22 


3.71 


0.54 


0.87 


1.0561 


14.35 


11.61 


7.16 


4.23 


0.68 


0.37 


1.0424 


10.97 


8.12 


5.72 


2.28 


0.29 


0.24 


1.0704 


18.81 


14.05 


7.33 


6.39 


0.54 


0.30 


1.0504 


13.18 


9.52 


6.76 


2.63 


0.19 


0.87 


1.0506 


13.42 


10.10 


7.93 


2.07 


0.36 


0.25 


1.0489 


12.08 


9.77 


5.57 


3.99 


0.44 


0.31 


1.0510 


13.18 


10.09 


7.15 


2.80 


0.47 


0.33 


1.0462 


12.00 


9.09 


7.63 


1.39 


0.29 


0.24 


1.0519 


13.77 


9.77 


6.10 


3.50 


0.51 


0.32 


r.0529 


14.05 


10.18 


6.18 


3.80 


0.35 


0.24 


1.0574 


12.87 


10.84 


5.15 


5.41 


0.46 


0.26 


1.0589 


13.08 


10.73 


7.77 


2.82 


0.48 


0.37 


1.0527 


14.60 


'10.29 


6.33 


3.77 


0.16 


0.28 


1.0445 


11.74 


8.41 


7.14 


1.21 


0.18 


0.24 


1.0527 


12.75 


10.86 


6.91 


3.76 


0.28 


0.28 


1.0521 


12. 37 


10.21 


7.55 


2.53 


0.44 


0.24 


1.0519 


12.55 


10.34 


6.89 


3.28 


0.33 


0.26 


1.0535 


13.39 


10.45 


6.84 


3.48 


0.37 


0.33 



Baldwin 

Bonum 

Bullock's pippin 

Emperor Alexander 

Eureka 

Gano 

Grimes Golden 

Jonathan 

Lankford 

Missouri pippin 

Naiisemond Beauty 

Nero 

Northern Spy 

Peck Pleasant 

Roxbury Russett 

Smith Cider 

Tolman Sweet 

Via 

White Winter Pearmain 

World's Wonder 

Yates 

Averages 



HARVESTING, TRANSPORTATION, AND STORAGE OF CIDER FRTJIT. 



If quality in cider , fruit is such a prime consideration, then any- 
thing which acts either to enhance or to deteriorate the same must 
receive attention. There is much discussion of this point going on in 
foreign journals, and the standard literature of this subject contains 
many notes thereon. The discussion hinges about certain principal 
questions, as: (1) What is the proper season to gather the fruit? (2) 
Shall it be hand picked or shaken "i (3) Shall it be kept in piles out of 
doors oil the ground? or (4) shall it be kept on raised temporarj^ struc- 
tures, so as to protect the fruit entireh' from contact with the earth? 
or (5) should it be removed at as early a date as possible into storage 
buildings ? 

Because of the fact that general culture of orchards for dessert 
fruit has not reached that stage of development in Europe which it 
has in the United States, they seem not to have worked out a s^^stem 
of harvesting fruit at all comparable to ours, nor does it appear that 
the harvesting and handling of cider fruits require such a system. 
Yet there are some important considerations to be observed. 

The early fruit which is turned into cider is generally treated with 
very little consideration. It is allowed to fall to the ground from the 
effect of natural ripening, and is either worked up from time to time 
or allowed to lie until such a time as it is convenient to whip off that 
which still hangs on the trees, and all is then worked together. This 
gives an uneven condition of fruit, and produces a poor product, which 
is fermented i-apidly and used for a cheap trade. Such fruit appears 



47 

to be handled in most countries just as we ordinarily handle our entire 
crop of cider apples in this country. The fruit lies in heaps on the 
earth, quite regardless of unclean conditi6ns, and is then ground with- 
out regard to uniformity of ripeness or blending for quality. 

The following discussion relates to observations made on the main 
cider crop. The practice of different countries varies much on some 
points and will be noticed separately so far as there is ground for so 
doing. 

Considerable importance is attached to observing the maturity of the 
fruit. The French especialh^ argue that both the sugar content and 
the quality of the product are affected thereby. The first will doubt- 
less be readily admitted by all, and the second in part, but further 
investigation is needed before all that is claimed can be admitted. 
While the fruit should certainly be mature that is, it should have 
reached the perfection of its growth it should not be allowed to ripen 
and fall from the tree, as this will lead to very irregular ripening and 
yield at no time a satisfactory^ amount of evenly ripened fruit in proper 
condition for grinding. 

The French lay great stress upon gathering and ripening in bulk, as 
they claim in this manner to secure the most perfect development of 
the delicate aroma which is such a marked characteristic of the best 
Normandy varieties. Their method is generally to dislodge the fruit 
by shaking and by the use of poles at about the stage of maturity which 
in America we recognize as right for gathering and barreling. In 
many places this fruit is left in huge piles under the trees until late 
in the season, though this is not considered the best practice. The 
better method, which seems to be quite well observed by larger 
growers, and especially by those concerns which manufacture large 
quantities of cider, is to bring the fruit quite promptly into the 
lofts over the cider mills. This was the only house-storage method 
observed in France. 

It is well to explain here that the small cider apples grown in France 
bear shaking and beating off' far better than would the large apples in 
our country, and further, the orchards are almost invariably set in 
heavy sod, which is an advantage in this method of harvesting. 
Their apples are often very firm at maturity, and some of them have 
a tough texture which resists rough handling well. It was surprising 
to see how little inclined the fruit is to decay from the effect of bruises 
and other slight injuries. 

The storage lofts in France were ordinarily fitted with bins or par- 
titions for the separation of apples of various qualities, so that they 
could be properly blended in grinding. Here were seen great struc- 
tures 100 feet long or more and 30 or 40 feet wide piled with apples 
to a depth of 4 to 6 feet, and such a loft in late November filled with 
this ripening fruit is pervaded by an aroma sometimes quite oppres- 



48 

sive and not easily characterized. 'Whien the room is not too close the 
odor is decidedly pleasant. Some makers are very careful to store the 
fruit only a foot or two deep, but this is the exception. 

The invariable custom, so far as observed, was to run the fruit by 
gravity from the loft storerooms into the grinders, whence the pomace 
falls into vats before going to the presses. The fruit is ground from 
these upper-floor storerooms as it ripens some varieties not coming to 
their best until Januar}^ or February. In the peculiar climate of Nor- 
mandy and Brittany there seems to be very little danger of the weather 
becoming sufficiently severe to harm the fruit materialh'. 

The growers of this fruit are very largely the small peasant pro- 
prietors and small tenants, with here and there a large estate. The 
small growers are referred to. in French literature as "recoltants." 
Often these peasant proprietors make up their own fruit and that of 
neighbors; hence the cider houses of these small makers are very 
common in some parts. But there is a tendency to commercialize, and 
more and more the fruit goes to the large manufacturer. To these it 
is hauled in carts (PI. V, fig. 2) loose or in sacks, the latter being the 
most popular method. These sacks are hoisted to the upper floor of 
the factories and distributed to the proper storerooms. There is also 
in France another class of cider makers, who buj^ the partly fermented 
juice from the small growers and blend and work it up to suit the 
trade they wish to supply. These are known as "commercants." 
They often make an excellent article, but they are also charged with a 
vast amount of trickery in the production of sophisticated goods. 

There is, in the great crop years, an extensive railway commerce in 
cider apples, both to local points and to the near or distant states. The 
shipments are made loose in what we call box cars, and also loose or 
in sacks on flat cars (PI. V, fig. 1). The method of shipping in sacks 
seems to be preferred in France and might well be copied in this 
country. The Germans appear to prefer handling the fruit loose. 
No railway commerce in cider apples was seen in England. In 1900 
such an immense crop was harvested in Normandy that the local rail- 
ways were literally blocked with fruit, as is sometimes the case on 
American roads when great quantities of coal are carried. 

At the local factories visited in France great stress seems to be laid 
upon gathering the late fruit when perfectly dry and storing at once 
in the bins, where more or less of it lies until January and February. 
There appears to be very little tendency to decay. The cider maker 
judges the ripeness of the fruit, or its fitness for grinding, by pressing 
with the thumb until the juice exudes or by breaking the fruit in half 
and crushing one portion in his hand with a wringing motion. Great 
stress is laid upon grinding at the best period of ripeness in order to 
secure all the juice possible by expressing. Cleanliness is the rule 
in the handling of fruit in France, yet some dirty bad work was seen^ 



Bl.1. 71 , Bureau of Chemistry, U, S. Dept. Agr. 



F'LATE V. 




FiQ. 1. Train Loaded with Cider Apples in Sacks, France. 




Fig. 2. Ox Cart used for Hauling Apples in Germany. 



49 

the fruit being dumped into filthy receptacles, and ground and pressed 
in a very unsanitary condition. 

In Germany there is, in the first place, much less specialization in 
the growing and handling of cider fruits, and there appears to be much 
less manufacturing of cider by small landed proprietors. There were, 
however, small makers everywhere, but the}^ ordinarily purchased 
their fruit as miscellaneous stock from various sources, and paid no 
attention to storing and maturing the same by a definite system, but 
ground it up as needed. 

The large factories, as far as observed, also handled the fruit less 
carefully than in France. It was purchased in wagonloads and car- 
loads and dumped into great bins on the ground, covered or uncovered. 
While, on the whole, it was handled in a cleanly manner, no attention 
seemed to be paid to keeping it dry, or to the fine points of ripening 
the fruit. At one large factory 100,000 kilos (100 tons) of fruit 
arrived daily, mostly by carloads, and was dumped into a great open 
bin, where the fruit lay in the open from a few inches to several feet 
deep until wanted for grinding. 

As cider apples are an incidental and not a special crop in Germany, 
it will be understood that harvesting is largely a matter of convenience 
rather than system. The refuse of dessert fruit, together with the 
inferior varieties and purely cider fruits, are collected as suits the 
growers' convenience, and disposed of at the factories or manufactured 
at home if the grower is also a cider maker. Cider making in Ger- 
many shows a strong tendenc}^ toward the factory sj^stem, and the 
makers have the technique of fermentation well worked out, but that 
they handle a fruit inferior to that of the French and with much less 
care is certainly" true. 

In England the manufacture of cider is ver}' largely in the hands of 
the farmers, though the factory idea is developing. One sees chiefly 
the same old customs of harvesting and handling the fruit that have 
prevailed for centuries. There is in general no attempt at storage. 
The low-grade fruit (refuse from what the English call " pot fruit," 
i. e., dessert and cooking grades) is gathered in miscellaneous piles in 
the orchard, and either ground from these piles or drawn away and 
sold to the factories. At the best mills the fruit is graded somew^hat, 
so as to properly blend the same at grinding, but even at these the 
fruit may be seen lying in heaps on the sod in the orchard or near-by 
lots until late in November. This practice gives to this fruit a very 
decided earthy flavor and odor, and in some cases it is largeh'^ dam- 
aged by decay. At Butleigh Court the fruit is stored in a loft over 
the press-room, and is kept in clean, dry condition. 

A method advocated by some in England is to make temporary bins 
in the field by using hurdles for sides and bottom, the bottom piece 
being elevated somewhat from the ground and all lashed together as 
17247 No. 7103 4 



50 

shown in the illustration (fig. 1). This . temporary rack is matted on 
the bottom and sides with straw and the fruit is then poured in. Such 
an arrangement permits of holding the fruit quite clean, and it can be 
covered with straw to protect from early freezes. 




Fig. 1. Bin made of hurdles for outdoor storage of apples, used in England. 

The English customs of handling fruit are in the main about the same 
as those in the United States. There is little or no shipping of cider 
fruit, such as there is in Fi-ance. It may be proper to say here that 
the French system of sacking this fruit in the orchard for transporta- 
tion, either by wagon or rail, seems to be well worthy of adoption 
by us. 

CIDER-MAKING ESTABLISHMENTS. 

The present manufacture of cider in Europe embraces establish- 
ments ranging all the way from the most primitive farm affairs to the 
most elaborate modern factory. Primitive methods of manufacture 
play a very important part in the grand total of product, and the users 
of primitive apparatus in many cases make an article equal to the best 
product of modern factories. 

Notwithstanding the tendency everywhere manifest toward the 
modern factory system, it seems that the cider industry is so peculiarlj'^ 
adapted to the farm that it should be the effort of orchardists, or at 
least of small communities, to conduct this work at home, and by 
making superior cider, vinegar, etc., from unmerchantable fruits, 
secure to themselves the very satisfactory profits which accrue to such 
a business rightly conducted. 



51 

In starting a cider-making establishment there are several points of 
importance which should be more or less observed. These are: 
(1) Supply of fruit; (2) supply of pure water easily carried into the 
factory under some pressure; (3) the lay of the ground in regard to 
drainage, and the building of cellars or basement rooms; (4) conven- 
ience for disposal of product, proximity to railroad station, etc. 

These conditions are of equal importance to the small maker and to 
the large factory. 

PRIMITIVE METHODS AND APPLIANCES. 

Persons employing very old methods of manufacture were observed 
in each of the three countries visited, but particularly in France, 
where there is in common use the old "tour a auge" mills; in fact, a 




Fig. 2. The "tour a auge" apple crusher, Normandy, France. 

modification of them is in use in some of the large factories driven by 
steam power. This machine is also in use in England, but to a very 
limited extent. In Germany, ancient hand devices were in use, but 
the "tour" was not seen. This very ancient device for crushing fruits 
before expressing the must is shown in the accompanying illustration 
(fig. 2). It is constructed of stone or of wood or by putting on a 
heavy layer of cement over an iron form. Necessarily the trough 
must be made of some material that will not be acted upon by the 
fruit juices. The plan of construction and the operation are very 
simple. The entire apparatus is ordinarily about 16 feet in diameter. 
The outer and inner walls (fig. 2, , a') are about 30 inches high, and 
inclose a circular trough (J), in which the grinding or crushing is 
done. This trough usually narrows toward the bottom, being about 
20 inches wide at the top and 14 inches at the bottom. The inner 



52 

wall is almost pei*pendicular; but the outer slopes decidedly toward 
the center of the trough, which varies in depth, but 14- inches is the 
usual depth. Within the inner circle, or cistern (c), rises a vertical 
column to a support above, and to this is attached the radial arms 
which carr}" the crushers {d). This inner space or cistern is some- 
times used as a receptacle for the fruit before grinding. The fruit 
falls by means of a chute from the storage loft into this cistern as 
desired, and from it is put into the grinding trough with a wooden 
shovel. 

The rollers or crushers are usuall}' made of a firm heav}' wood with 
a somewhat corrugated surface. Rollers are also made of granite, but 
this makes them ver}^ heavy, and they are said to crush the seeds of 
the fruit, which is not desired. . These huge wheels are about 3 feet in 
diameter, and about 6 inches to 9 inches on the faces. They are set so 
that thej^ do not trail, thus covering all the bottom surface of the 
trough. A small device, not shown, follows after the crushers and 
scrapes the pomace and uncrushed fruit down into the bottom of the 
trough. 

"Tours" were seen with onl}' one large broad-faced crusher, and 
with various other modifications, but the one figured seems to be of 
the typical form. Where used in steam mills, they are rigged with 
the crushers exactly opposite each other, on fixed radial bars, and the 
perpendicular shaft is turned by a pinion wheel. In this manner they 
are driven at rather high speed, and are used principally to remix 
pomace with water for the second and third pressings. 

The "tour," as shown in the illustration, is typical of those used by 
the small peasant proprietors in France. It is worked by a horse which 
patiently plods around its limited circle, becoming so used to the work 
as to require no attention. In fact, he soon learns to forage on the 
fruit b}^ twisting his neck so as to gather the pomace from the front 
crusher as it revolves. Hence he is not removed for feeding until the 
daj^'s work is done. 

The fruit is thrown into the trough 2 to 3 inches deep and the horse 
is put in motion, and during the grinding, the attendant is busy witji 
other duties, as fitting up the "cheese," bearing awa}' the cider, etc. 
The fruit will be reduced to pulp in twenty or thirty minutes, vary- 
ing with its texture. The attendant then turns on a scraper, attached 
at the rear of the rollers, which shoves the pomace into a heap at the 
side adjacent to the press. From here it is lifted with a wooden shovel 
to the press platform. The cheese is laid up very much as with us 
viz, wrapped in special cloths each section or lozenge i to 5 inches 
deep. Instead of cloth, straw is often used to divide the mass of the 
cheese into layers. 

To put up a cheese with straw divisions, a bed of straight straw is 
spread on the press platform, and a mass of pomace is evenly distrib- 



53 

uted over it to the depth of -i or 5 inches. This is then covered with 
a second layer of straw, and the operation is repeated. The straw is 
laid on ver}^ carefully, radiating outward, the butts projecting- a bit 
over the edge of the cheese. The workmen are very adept in laying 
up the cheese in this fashion, and produce a remarkably true even 
block of pomace. When completed, the edges are cut down straight, 
and the pomace and bits of straw are spread on top of the cheese, and 
then all is ready for the application of pressure. The interposed beds 
of straw serve excellently to drain the cheese when under pressure. 
Indeed, this method has strong features to commend it. 

After removing the pomace the trough is resupplied with fruit, and 
the operation is repeated. Thus one hand attends to the crushing, lays 
up the cheese, presses out the must, and bears it awa}^, in this way 
working up about 2^ tons of fruit daily. The fruit is ground in 
batches, as just described, and the results of four or live lots go to 
make up one cheese. When this is completed, the horse is removed, 
and the press is started on the cheese. 

There are many styles of presses used, but one of very ancient type 
is worthy of rather extended description. The particular one here 
described bore dates which indicated that it had been in use for two 
hundred years, and this stj-le was formerly the only power press used. 

The essentials of this structure are two immense beams of oak. 
These beams are 14 inches square and 20 feet long. One constitutes 
the base and rests on a firm foundation to which it is securely attached. 
On this a short distance from one end is made fast the platform which 
supports the cheese. The other beam is freely movable. At the end 
just to the rear of the cheese platform the free beam moves up and 
down between two strong uprights, which are mortised through at 
intervals to permit of heavy cross bars being inserted to support the 
beam at any desired height. The other end is unattached, save that a 
large wood screw passes through it and enters a huge block on top of 
it, which block is threaded and acts as a nut. This wooden screw is 
attached to the lower beam, but works freely in a socket. 

While the cheese is building, the upper beam is elevated, front and 
rear, out of the way. When read}^ to appl}^ pressure, the end nearest 
the cheese is let down on the heavy blocking which covers the latter, 
and iB then securely '"blocked" by means of cross bars so it can not 
rise. Then the other end is lowered until the beam rests fairly on the 
blocking over the cheese. Its very weight causes the must to flow 
freely at once, but power is now gradually applied by running down the 
wooden nut until it rests on the beam, then turning the great wooden 
screw slowly, b}^ means of levers inserted in large augur holes through 
the same, until this beam comes into a horizontal position. The pres- 
sure is applied very slowly, the attendant bearing off the must, as 
it flows, to the casks in the adjacent fermentation room. When the 
flow of must becomes much reduced, the screw is loosened, the front 



54 

end of the pressure beam is raised,- and this causes the rear end to fall 
lower, so that it can be again blocked down, after which the pressure 
is reapplied. This operation is repeated until the cheese is pressed 
sufficientl3% when it is allowed to drain for some time, f requenth' over 
night, after which the pomace is removed, remashed in the "tour," 
and repressed. When reworking this pomace, an amount of water is 
added equal to about one-fifth of the juice which has been expressed 
from it. In practice, the amount of must secured by the second 
pressing is about equal to the water added. This reworking of the 
pomace completes the usual routine, and a cheese of fresh fruit is now 




Fig. 8. Primitive apple grater in use in Germany. 

ground, and laid up as before. B}^ this S5^stem, about 400 gallons of 
first and second pressings are obtained dailj^ with the labor of practi- 
cally but one man and one horse. "With this lever press the use of a 
rack or frame of any kind to hold the pomace is impracticable. 
Evidently these latter appliances have come into use along with the 
direct screw press. 

A few illustrations (figs. 3, 4, and 5) showing primitive methods in 
use in Germany are reproduced from Johannes Bottner's recent book 
on cider making, but there is so little in these to commend that they 
will not be discussed. They are sufiicientl}- self-explanator3\ 



55 

It may not be known to many Americans that John Bartram, the 
pioneer American botanical collector, made and used a "tour a auge" 
cider mill on the banks of the Schuylkill in the early days of Pennsyl- 




FiG. 4. Primitive single-lever cider press in use in Germany. 

vania. The circular trough, hewn in the great rock on the bank of the 
river, yet remains; also the rock-hewn cistern mute witnesses to his 
ingenuit3\ From these portions one can in imagination easily recon- 




FiG. 5. Primitive double-lever cider press in use in Germany. 

struct the rest of the mill. This system was very evidently in use in 
the early days in New Jersey and elsewhere among the colonial 
farmers for crushing their fruit, but no description or detailed account 
of its use in America has been found. 



56 



MODERN METHODS AND APPLIANCES. 

There is a wide range of procedure in grinding and pressing cider 
fruit between the distincth" primitive appliances and methods and 
those of the modern factory system. Machines of small and medium 
capacity are numerous abroad, and range from the smallest handmills 
of the meanest construction, with wooden rollers for crushing the 
fruit, to the finest hand and power machines of the best scientitic 
construction. 

As a general thing the mills which emplo}' a hopper into which the 
fruit is thrown, whence it is fed (by gravit}') onto a rotar}^ gi-ating or 

crushing device, marks 
the initial departure of 
modern machines from 
primitive ones. Of such 
machines there is a great 
variet}' in use in Europe, 
but there is very little to 
commend in them with one 
exception, to which atten- 
tion will be called here- 
after. Man}' of these mills 
were either American 
machines or modifications 
of well-known American 
types, which do not need 
to be described here. But 
there is one type of rotary 
grinding or crushing ma- 
chine found very com- 
monly in Germany, but 
nuich less frequently in 
France and England, 
which appears to deserve 
description and illustra- 
tion. The origin of this mill is uncertain, but it is thought to be Ger- 
man. It can readily be used for either hand or power work. This 
mill is called in German the "greif '" (grip) fruit mill, and it is probably 
the best type foruse in ordinary work. It is shown as used for hand 
work in figure 0. In principle this mill goes back to that of the ancient 
"tour a auge," viz, that of crushing the fruit instead of rasping or 
grating it, but it appears to accomplish this with greater perfection. 
The capacity, of course, depends on the size of the mill. 

In general, experienced persons admit the desirabilit}' of preventing, 
as far as possible, the contact of the pomace and must with metals such 
as iron. With the mills known as graters, which are now practically 




Fig. 6. The "greif " apple crusher of Germany. 



57 



the only important kind of mills on the American market, this end is 
not secured, for the pulp is all brought into contact with metal sur- 
faces. With the "greif" machine this is not the case to the same 
extent. A further disadvantage of the grater mill, of perhaps more 
importance from a practical standpoint, is that the best grater mills 
will not continue to prepare the pomace in the best manner unless the 
grater knives are frequently reground. This requires time and skill, 
and is a distinct drawback to their use in the ordinary country factory. 
The " greif " mill, on the other hand, can be adjusted for fine or coarse 
pomace, as may be desired, in a minute, and it has the still more impor- 
tant advantage of reducing the fruit to pomace by bruising or crushing 
the tissues. 

The ' ' greif " mill in general 
aspect appears not unlike many 
American hand or small power 
mills, but in the essentials it is 
entirely different. The fruit 
when thrown into the hopper, 
falls upon a slotted bottom 
(fig. 7). This may be made of 
hard wood or of metal. There 
is also a board slotted to corre- 
spond to the bottom at the back 
side of the hopper, which de- 
flects the fruit forward, so that 
it only comes onto the slotted 
bottom at the front side of the 
hopper. The crank or driving- 
wheel is attached to a shaft (c?), 
which rests just over the slot- 
ted bottom of the hopper, and to this shaft are attached slightly 
curved arms (e), 6 to 8 inches long, which, as the shaft revolves, catch 
the fruit and crush it through the slots in the bottom of the hopper. 
One of these arms can be seen in the section of the hopper shown in 
figure 8. Thus the fruit is more or less broken before it comes in 
contact with the crushers. 

The two stone rollers which crush the fruit are shown in perspective 
and cross section in figure 9, and in situation at a^ figure 8. They 
are made of granite or of millstone grit, and mounted on shafts. The 
surfaces are cut with a slight spiral corrugation. By use of a regulat- 
ing screw (fig. 8, /"), one of these rollers can be made to approach the 
other, so as to regulate the crushing of the fruit as ma}^ be desired. 
The French and German operators wish to pulp the fruit as finely as 
possible without crushing or grinding the seeds. 







1! 




' 


(S) 






e> 


iE 


^ e 






:!! 




11!!!':' ^ III 






1,1 

J 

1 

j 






a 










J 




1 




e 1 








e 1 


CD 


1 


e| 






'! 
'ii 


Of 





Fig. 7. Slotted bottom of hopper used in "greif" 
machine. 



58 

The feeding arms (fig. 7, e) are placed spiral!}" around the shaft (d), 
so that only one is delivering fruit at the same moment, but this posi- 
tion insures a constant feed, and the size of the slots is such that no 
whole fruit can be delivered to the crushers. By means of the cog 
gearing driven from the shaft to which is attached the crank or drive 
wheel, the crushers are made to revolve inward at the. desired rate of 
speed. The spiral corrugations are so cut that they cross each other 
at an angle which adds very material!}" to the crushing or pulping 
effect of this mill. 

So far as was observed, this apparatus seems well adapted either to 
hand or power work, and gives good results. Its most important 



Fig. 8. "Greif " apple crusher, sectional view of hopper. 

advantages are, (1) the pomace is not brought so much in contact 
with metal surfaces, as is the case with grating mills; (2) it can be 
regulated to grind fine or coarse very quickly and with certaint}', and 
(3) the operator is entirely freed from the task of removing and grind- 
ing knives. 

It should be noted that the fruit must be caref ull}- freed from stones, 
sticks, and the like, or a breakdown of the working parts is sure to 
occur. The grater mills, with spring adjusted concaves, are not 
nearly so liable to such mishaps. 

This German mill appears to be coming into favor in England. The 
ordinary mills of other styles presented no points of special importance. 



Bui. 71, Bureau of Chemistry, U. S Dept. Agr. 



Plate VI. 




FiQ.1. Itinerant Cider Makers at Work in Streets. Straw 
Used in Building up Cheese, Rennes, France. 




Fig. 2. Similar Outfit Mounted for Travel, Waiting for a 
Job, Trouville, France. 



59 



American mills and presses are to be seen in use in different parts of 
the country. The presses used ordinarily with medium-sized modern 
machines are of the screw types, either with a descending screw or a 
screw firmly set in the base of the press and with falling head blocks. 

In France most of the small mills are of the grater type, with adjust- 
able concaves for pressing the fruit firmly against the grinding cylin- 
der. These machines are scarcely worthy of special illustration, but 
the very common custom of making cider in the streets of the small 
towns and cities of the French cider districts is so unique as to deserve 
some notice. 

It is a ver}^ common sight in 
Rennes, Trouville, Nantes, and 
other west coast towns to see 
small outfits placed in the street 
(Plate VI) or on the sidewalk 
grinding and pressing small 
quantities of fruit for the 
householders or the small 
shopkeepers. The mills pre- 
sent ordinarily no features 
that are unusual and are quite 
uniformly graters operated by 
hand. Sometimes the frame is 
mounted on wheels or wooden 
rollers so that it can be trun- 
dled from place to place. The 
presses likewise are at times 
mounted on wheels, as shown 
in the illustration. Practi- 
cally all presses used for 
street work are of the central 
screw type, the power being 
applied by means of a huge 

nut which is turned down bj^ means of levers. The cheese is either 
laid up in a crib frame or with straw divisions, as previously explained. 

FACTORY SYSTEMS. 

In the three leading cider-producing countries of Europe are to be 
found well- developed factory systems differing considerably from 
one another. Hence it is necessary to take up several types which 
present certain characteristics and treat each separately. 

FRENCH FACTORIES. 

Although there is much to commend in the cider fruits, the facto- 
ries, and ciders of the French, yet there was much one could not com- 




FiG. 9 Crushing cylinders of the "greif " machine. 



60 



mend in their systems of manufacture. It is proposed to notice, 
first of all, one of these factories run on what seemed to be question- 
able methods. There is a very modern school of French cider makers, 
whose claims and pretentions deserve more than passing notice, 
especially since it is proposed to introduce their system into the United 
States. 

The svstem referred to is known in France as the Noel system, and 
involves pretended secret processes which it is claimed perform 
wonders in the handling of cider fruit, the storage and keeping of 
ciders, etc. The writer had several conferences with the promoters of 
this scheme in Paris, and w^as offered full instruction in the methods 
for a period of sevent}^ or eighty daj^s for 30,000 francs, on condition 
that the methods should never be divulged 1 During these conferences 




Fig. 10. Fermentation and storage room, Noel system, France. 

and later in visiting some of the factories it was ascertained that the 
so-called system consisted of nothing peculiarly valuable. The pro- 
cedure was much the same as in other factories. The fruit was ground 
and pressed, then the pomace was exhausted by diffusion with warm 
water, a method often used in France, and the resulting musts were 
united and sugared to a condition which would make a fair cider. A 
great pretense w^as made of securing valuable principles lost to others 
by exhausting the marc in warm water. B}^ sugaring up the weak 
must secured by exhausting the pomace with water, about double the 
quantity of cider is made that can be usually obtained by using pure 
juice. This is truly an old secretl However, the plan of one factory 
which was twice visited is quite unique, and for that reason is pre- 
sented somewhat fully. The building is a fine new brick structure 
in a suburb of Versailles. The surroundings are much like those of a 



61 

home. The family lives in the front of the structure, and here the 
office is also located. Extending back from the front is a rectangular 
structure two stories high and about 40 feet wide by 150 feet long. 
The lower story of this rear structure -comprises one large room with 
very heavy brick walls without windows. This room is entered from 
the front by large doors, and has a rear door of smaller size. Along 
the sides of this room, against the walls, are ranged great tanks about 
60 in number with total capacity reaching possibly 200,000 gallons. 

The illustration (fig. 10) shows a perspective view down the center 
of the room. Each tank is furnished with a faucet near the bottom, 
and a glass tube communicating with the interior rises the full height 
of the tank, showing at a glance the height of the liquor within. The 
top is tightly closed, but a manhole for entering the tank and taps for 
introducing the must are provided. The center of this room is occu- 
pied by casks, pumps, and paraphernalia for racking and handling the 
cider. Also great cart loads of fruit in sacks are brought from the 
railway station, driven to the center of this floor, and elevated to 
the upper story by a power lift, worked by a gasoline engine in the 
second story. 

The second story is used to store fruit, and here is also located the 
grinder, the gasoline engine which furnishes all the power for the 
plant, and the tubs or tanks for exhausting the pomace. The fruit 
for grinding is thrown into a tank of water in which rests the lower 
end of an elevator screw which lifts it to the grinding cylinders. From 
the grinder the pomace falls into the press, where it is made up into 
cheeses after the American fashion and pressed immediately. The 
object of throwing the fruit into the tank of water is to wash it, which 
is fairly well accomplished by the motion of the elevator screw. 

The exhaustion of the pomace after pressing is accomplished by 
diffusion with warm water, as already stated. The operations of 
blending and sugaring were not shown, nor were the details of the 
system of fermenting and racking explained other than in vague 
terms. However, the must is both fermented and stored on the first 
floor and is run off into casks for market as desired. 

The product, as sampled in several stages of manufacture, was very 
inferior, and had little resemblance to that of standard Normandy 
ciders. This factory is making about 200,000 gallons of cider annually. 
The construction of the factory, arrangement of machinery, tanks, 
etc. , is quite unique, and apparently advantageous. 

A characteristic of the French "cidreries" was the almost total 
absence of cellars. Thus, in the factory just described the storage is 
wholly above ground. This is the rule in France, while just the 
opposite is true of Germany. 

La Gidrerie de V Union Agricole. The best type of factory examined 
in the French cider country is that of an agricultural union at St. 



62 

Ouen-de-Thouberville, a short distance from Rouen. This establish- 
ment, built and operated upon a cooperative plan, is a model in its 
mechanical appointments, and the technique of its operations seemed 
to leave little to be desired. The general manager is Monsieur Gus- 
tave Power, the noted authority on pomology, whose books have been 
officially adopted by the minister of agriculture for use in the schools 
of France. The writer was most courteously received by this cultured 
gentleman, and given every facility to examine and study the details 
and methods of the establishment, which is, perhaps, representative of 
the best type in France. 

The ground plan of the main factory is shown in figure 12. In total 
dimensions, the building is approximately 300 feet long by 100 feet 
wide. A study of the vertical, longitudinal section (fig. 11) will help 
to give a clear idea of the plan and workings of this factor}-. It will 
be seen that to the rear of the main operating room of the ground floor 
one can step up a few feet into the main fermenting room, or down a 
few feet into a half -cellar used for the finishing processes of fermen- 
tation and for storage. The surface of the ground slopes from the 
front to the rear of the building, so that this lower room ends at ground 
level. This gives an important advantage in the ease with which the 
finished product can be loaded on trucks for transport. 

The operation of this factor}^ will be better understood by following 
the usual course of the fruit and must as they pass through the sev- 
eral processes to the finished product. The carts laden with apples in 
sacks enter the shed in front of the factory, and by a hoist, operated 
from the main shaft within, the fruit is lifted to the second floor, 
where it is weighed and put in bins according to varieties and quality. 
These bins cover nearh^ all of the second floor, and are only 18 inches 
deep, strict rules as to methods of storage being observed. With the 
fruit thus distributed, it is possible to observe critically its condition 
and to grind as it comes to proper maturity; also the careful distribu- 
tion in accordance with the quality makes it easy to blend the fruit so 
as to produce desired grades of must. 

When ready to grind, the fruit is measured to the machine in proper 
proportions. The grinder stands at the floor level of this storeroom. 
Formerly the fruit was washed, but now this is only resorted to in 
case of necessity. The fruit is, however, run over a slatted "way" or 
chute in its progress to the cj^linders and much trash is screened out, 
an attendant watching that foreign substances likely to damage the 
grinders do not pass. From the grinders the pulp drops into a 
chute, which delivers it at the pleasure of the operator into one or 
another of the several pomace vats. The custom is to fill one after 
another of the vats, the pulp being allowed to remain for some hours 
before pressing. This maceration of the pulp in its own juice is 
thought to aid in extracting the sugar content and to give better color 
to the must through certain chemical changes caused by the action of 



63 




64 

the air on the crushed tissues. The pulp is not, however, and never 
should be, allowed to ferment before pressing. 




The pulp vats at this factory were made of porcelain tiles carefully set 
in cement. A drain pipe was arranged to carry the must, which always 



65 

flows from f reshl}' crushed fruit, into a cistern at the left of these vats. 
From here it was pumped into the large casks in the fermentation 
room. The large vat (tig. 12, h) is provided for the maceration of 
pomace after it has been through the press. 

When the pulp is thought to be in condition for the press a small 
car is run alongside and the pulp is laid up in cheeses on a form, using 
coarsely woven press cloths just as is done in the best American fac- 
tories. When this car is loaded it is run onto the press (Z>', tigs. 11 
and 12), and the hydraulic pump is put in motion, the car and its load^ 
of pulp being lifted by the upward thrust of a hydraulic piston after 
the manner so common in this country. In this factory the hydraulic 
presses were rated at 200,000 pounds direct pressure. 

While this load of pulp is under pressure another car is loaded 
ready to take its place. On being released from the press the car is 
run alongside the large vat and the pressed pomace is discharged into 
it, carefully cut up with a shovel and wet with weak must or water, 
the amount of liquor added being about equal to the pure juice 
expressed. This round of operations is repeated until the day's grind- 
ing is exhausted, and the pomace from the first pressing then rests in 
the large vat macerating in water or weak must until thought readj^ 
for pressing a second time. The must from the fresh pulp in the vats 
and cistern is united in the great casks of the fermentation room as 
pure juice. This is destined for the highest grade cider. 

After eight to ten or twelve hours maceration the pomace is again 
subjected to pressure on a different press (7>, fig. 11) from that used 
for pure juice, and the must is received in another cistern near hj 
and pumped into another set of casks. This must is used to make a 
second grade of cider, the "boisson" of the laborers. But this does 
not complete the operation. Again the pomace luidergoes maceration 
with water or weak must, being then pressed a third time. The must 
from this pressing is very weak, its specific gravity being 1.010 to 
1.016. This must is used to macerate the pomace after the first press- 
ing, thus adding v^er}' materially to the quality of the must derived 
from the second pressing. 

The pomace is no longer of an}'' value for cider purposes. It may, 
therefore, be discharged b}" running the car outside the factor}^, or it 
may be ground anew and washed to separate the seeds, which return 
no small income, as they are in great demand by nurserymen for 
growing stocks. These seeds are known in commerce in this country 
as French "crab seed," but ih.Qj are realh^ seeds of the cultivated 
apple and not of crabs. 

A second method of extracting the juice from the apple pulp is also 

employed in this factor}", viz, diffusion. The diffusion batter3"(6^, fig. 

12) is located at the extreme left of the main operating room. It 

consists of 6 tanks, about 3i to 4 feet high, mounted on a turntable. 

17247 No. 7103 5 



66 

Immediatel}'^ at one side and just above the level of the tanks is a res- 
ervoir for water. This ma}'^ be supplied warm or cold. 

To put this apparatus in operation, 5 of the tanks are filled with cut 
or pulped fruit. These are so connected that the fluid will circulate 
from one tank to another by means of a tube connected at the bottom 
of the first and delivering the flow near the top of the second, and so 
on around the circle. By the time the fluid flows out from the bottom 
of the fifth tub it is well charged with the soluble matters contained 
in the fruit, i. e., sugars, acid, tannin, mucilage, etc. But it can 
never be made to equal in richness the product of the first pressing 
from the same fruit. 

As soon as the fruit in the first tank is exhausted by this washing 
with water, the stream is turned into the second, and the sixth tank, now 
freshly filled with pulp, is put in service as the final member of the 
battery. Then the first tank is emptied and refilled with fresh fruit 
to take the last place in the series, when the third tank becomes the 
first cell in the battery. Thus the opei*ation proceeds indefinitely. 
It should be said that the richness of the must delivered at the exit 
from the fifth cell always determines when a fresh tub or cell must be 
"cut in," as the flow through the last tub of fresh fruit strengthens 
the must very much. The strength or richness is taken by specific 
gravity very readily. 

The manufacture of cider by the diffusion method is carried on in 
France to a considerable extent, but its present importance does not 
appear to warrant extended discussion here. It may be worthy of 
study, but all the indications seem to point to its failure to produce a 
genuine high-grade cider. 

In the factory at St. Ouen-de-Thouberville two hand presses were 
provided as a reserve to be used in case of accident to. the hydmulic 
presses. 

The main operations prior to fermentation have now been outlined. 
The must of the several grades has been delivered by pumps to the 
large casks in the fermentation room (figs. 11 and 12). Through each 
section of this part of the building runs a main brass pipe connecting 
with the pumps. The flow is readily turned into the desired section 
by valve cut-offs, and in each section the must is delivered to the 
receptacles by rubber tubes which can be attached to the " main" at 
convenient points. Each cask as filled is marked with the date and 
such other data as are necessary to guide the operator in the details of 
the fermentation. At the same time proper entries are made in the 
factory journal for future reference. 

The technique of fermentation is not discussed here, as it will be 
treated further on in this report. It should be added, however, that 
Mr. Power was using casks usually of 600 liters capacity or larger, 
open vats made of slate, and great tanks by way of experiment during 
the first fermentation; but his preference was for the casks. 



67 

From the upper room, where the first fermentation occurs, the cider 
runs by gravity at first racking to the room below, which is a sort of 
half cellar. Here it usually rests until it is finished cider. The rail- 
ways shown on the ground plan are in this lower room and serve to 
carry the finished cider in casks of proper size for transportation to a 
platform at the lower side of the factory, from which they are rolled 
onto the great carts without lifting, an advantage of considerable 
importance. 

The space shown in the illustration, however, is not sufficient for 
the product of this factory, and five cisterns adjoining the lower store- 
room augment the storage capacity by 60,000 gallons. These are 
made of slate laid in cement, and the cider stored in them keeps per- 
fectly. When it is necessary to bring them into use, the cider flows 
by gravity to them from the lower storeroom. The}^ are carefully 
closed as filled, and only opened as it becomes necessary to pump the 
cider out for commerce. This factory has a total annual capacity of 
about 350,000 gallons. The laboratory is of very great importance, 
and here Mr. Power makes analyses of fruits and of the product at 
various stages of manufacture so that all may be well governed. 

GERMAN FACTORIES. 

Among German cider makers of the Taunus and Rhinegau districts 
to propose fermenting the must in other than good cellars would be 
heretical. The cellar is here the first essential. Everywhere the 
small proprietor and the great manufacturer work on essentially the 
same principles. These cellars are most excellently built of good 
masonry, the walls being finished in hard mortar and the floors in 
cement, as though they were intended to endure for ages. Drainage, 
ventilation, hoists, and the like are carefully looked after. 

Dr. Cluss, in his recent work on cider making, bemoans the careless- 
ness and lack of method observed in some parts of Germany, but in 
the districts visited by the writer the people have the details well in 
hand. Only a few types of factories which illustrate those seen can be 
taken up in this report. 

The mills most generally in use in Germany for grinding or crushing 
the fruit are either single-cylinder rasping or grating mills or two- 
cylinder crushers ("greif " mills.) The simple grater mill serves its 
purpose very well, but the consensus of opinion seems to be decidedly 
in favor of the stone cylinder crusher (figs. 6-9). This mill, in dif- 
fferent sizes, was found in use, some being driven bj^^ small steam or 
gasoline engines. In fact small factories with good appliances and 
good cellars are quite common in the territory visited. 

The German cider maker may have a building devoted entirely to 
that purpose, as the large makers invariably do, or, as in the case of 
farmers and other small makers, he may use only a portion of a build- 
ing, the balance being used for other purposes. The grinding and 



68 

pressing rooms ma}" be additions built onto another structure, the cellar 
extending under the whole. In no case was fruit seen stored in upper 
rooms or lofts, but usually on the floor of the operating room or in bins 
adjacent. The small makers seem to make little or no provision for 
storage, and the grinding and pressing, so far as observed, were con- 
ducted on the ground floor. In the small plants this requires only 
a moderate amount of floor space, the power plant and grinder being 
near each other and the presses adjacent. The pulp was almost invari- 
ably allowed to stand for some hours before pressing. The Germans 
usually have large tubs, holding, say, 10 hectoliters (264 gallons) of 
fruit pulp, and into these the crushed fruit is at once placed as soon as 
it falls from the mill. Even the largest factor}^ visited, having an 
annual output of over 500,000 gallons of cider, pursues this rather cum- 
bersome method. In large factories this requires a great amount of 
floor space and seems to necessitate an enormous waste of labor, but it 
is thought satisfactory by the proprietors. Small plants usually grind 
only enough fruit to make one or two cheeses at a time, and hence 
proceed at a rate which, in this country, would be considered wasteful 
of time. 

The manner of laying up the cheese is in the main the same as in 
our best appointed mills in which cribs are still used to hold the pulp 
during pressing. The cheese cloth has not made headway in Germany. 
The cribs, usualh" circular, are very well made. 

After maceration for a period varying from twelve to twenty-four 
hours, the pulp is brought to the press and submitted to as heavy 
pressure as possible by hand power, the drop screw press being largely" 
used, but also those with the screw on a central stem. The pressure is 
applied for a considerable period until the cheese is carefully drained; 
then the pomace is thrown up and tinelj" broken, and either macerated 
with water, as in France, or allowed to rest for a period when it is 
pressed a second time in a stronger press. The Germans do not use 
much water in macerating pomace for repressing; in fact, a very 
small amount was used where the operations were observed. The 
best German factories inspected did not use water at all, but these 
were equipped with hydraulic as well as hand presses, and the press- 
ing was completed at a pressure of 250 atmospheres on the hj^draulic 
presses. 

The differences between French and German fruit in sugar content 
have some bearing on the use of water in macerating. At no time 
was must observed flowing from the press in German mills which 
was above 50 Ochsle (1.050 specific gravity), and if, after watering 
slightly, a second pressing of 40 to 45 Ochsle (1.040-1.045 specific 
gravity) could be obtained, the two runs were united and fermented 
together. This was the practice in small factories. 

The largest German factory visited, that of the Freyeisen Brothers,' 
Frankfort, is possibly the largest in the world. Its annual output is 



69 

about 25,000 hectoliters (660,000 gallons). Unfortunately plans of 
this building were not to be had, and it was too extensive for the 
writer to attempt making drawings. The working equipment consists 
of one grinder, a large number of mash tubs in which the pulp is 
macerated, 22 presses (6 of these hydraulic), teams, tools, etc. A force 
of 160 laborers is emplo3^ed. In this factory, and also in most of the 
smaller 'German factories visited, the fruit is washed before grinding, 
usually in the manner already described, namely, by dumping it into 
a great vat of water and elevating it from this to the grinder by a 
screw rotating in a half cylinder. 

The workmen carry the apples from the bins in wooden vessels resem- 
bling tubs, holding about a bushel, and dump them into the washing vat. 
The pulp is taken in like vessels as it falls from the grinder and carried 
by the workmen to the macerating vats. From these, after maceration 
for about twenty-four hours, it is again filled into the tubs and carried 
to the presses. The pressure is applied slowly, and the pulp is allowed 
to drain a long time. Then the pomace is cut up fine, put into another 
press, and re-pressed without addition of water. The third and last 
pressing is accomplished at 250 atmospheres. No further use is made 
of the pomace. The must averages about 1.050 specific gravity. 

To an American the work of this factory seems to be conducted qn 
an exceedingly laborious plan. The impression obtained was that this 
old firm, which had been in business about a century, had at various 
times grafted on new ideas and appliances, without at any time really 
reconstructing and modernizing the plant. In like manner, the cel- 
lars appeared to have been added to until they honeycombed the earth, 
and extended vault below vault to a depth of 17i meters (56 feet) below 
the surface of the factory yard. This bewildering maze of cellar 
vaults, full of great casks, each holding 2,000 liters (528 gallons) or 
more, over 900 in all, served to store the product; but a great quan- 
tity of cider is sold while still in first fermentation for use in the res- 
taurants of Frankfort as sweet or smoking cider. 

The methods of handling the must are now to be considered. The 
pressing of the pomace, as explained above, generally occurs on the 
ground floor immediately over the cellar. To this first cellar the fresh 
must is conducted through rubber pipes, either by gravity or by 
pumping, and is put directly into the great casks in the fermentation 
room. 

It is the German custom not to fill the casks so full that there will be 
any discharge of froth or top lees through the bunghole, 6 or 8 inches 
of clear space being left in the top of each cask. As soon as a cask 
in the fermentation room is filled, it is fitted with the ventilating 
funnel (fig. 16). Nearly all good cider factories are provided with 
cellars at least two stories in depth, so that the room for final fermen- 
tation and storage is immediately below the first cellar. 



70 



The construction and arrangement of typical German cellars are 
shown in figures 13 and 14. The most ordinarj' place visited had one 
good cellar, and places of the next higher grade uniformly had two- 
story cellars. The great factories have still deeper cellars, as that of 
the Freyeisen Brothers already mentioned. 

The chief advantage of the cellar is the ease with which temperature 
can be controlled. For instance, in the upper cellar, b}^ introducing 
air through ventilating flues (fig. 13 h), it is possible to mise or lower 
the temperature in accordance with the condition of the atmosphere, 
and once the proper temperature is reached its maintenance is fairly 




Fig. 13. Vertical cross section of small German cider factory with arched cellars. 

easy. However, in the cold season, if the temperature falls too low, 
resort is had to a heating apparatus. The temperature which the Ger- 
mans seem to prefer for the fermentation room (B, figs. 13 and 14) 
is 15 to 18 C. (59 to 65 F.), the lower figure being preferred if 
active fermentation starts promptly at this temperature. In the lower 
cellar ( (7, fig. 14) or finishing room a temperature of 8 to 10 C. (45 to 
50 F.) is preferred. Still lower temperatures are obtained in late 
fall and winter. 

The comparative ease with which the cider can be piped from one 
cellar room to another under this German system is very apparent. 



71 

The liquor must, in the course of its progress to a finished product, 
pass from a warmer to a colder temperature, and this is here accom- 
plished by gravitation. The hoist (fig 14, e) at last lifts the finished 
product from the lowest room to the ground floor. Naturalh' the 
great casks are never disturbed except for purposes of repair or reno- 
vation. The finished product is either bottled direct in the storage 
room or transferred to smaller casks for transportation. Manholes 
are provided in the floors of each room to permit the passage of the 
pipes, etc. , used in handling the product. 




Fig. 14. Vertical cross section of two-story German cider cellar. 



ENGLISH FACTORIES. 



There is little that is distinctive about English cider factories. This 
does not imply that there are not good factories in England; on the 
contrary, some of the finest products observed anywhere were those 
of English factories. But there is no definitely recognized standard 
in regard to either apparatus or buildings and cellars for either small 
or large factories in England. The best factories seen were copied 
from those of the French champagne makers of Epernay; but as to 
mechanical devices or details of arrangement, they show little that is 
new or of peculiar importance. The cellar plays but a small part with 



72 

the average English cider maker. ' Some important details, however, 
in the handling of must and in fermentation processes were observed. 

The English factories grind largely with graters and rasping cylin- 
ders, though the German "greif " machine (figs. 6, 7, 8, and 9) is com- 
ing into use. As before mentioned, the "tour a auge" was seen in 
use in England. 

The English rarely press the pomace but once, and almost no 
maceration of the pomace with water was observed. The quantity of 
juice extracted from the fruit varies, according to the statements made, 
from 60 to 90 per cent of the weight of fruit, but the latter figure is 
so high as to inspire grave doubt as to its correctness. The presses 
used are mostly old-st3^1e hand and power screw presses. Not a 
hydraulic press was seen in use in the island. The system of handling 
the fruit at the large factories seems particularly objectionable. It 
was in most cases lying in great heaps in the yards or lots adjacent 
to the mill, and in many cases a considerable percentage of it was far 
gone with decay. 

On a tenant farmer's place in Herefordshire was seen one of the 
largest plants visited in England, and a few words of description 
will give an idea of its management. The fruit lies in immense piles 
in the orchard on a rise of ground which extends up to the factory 
sheds. When needed, the fruit is shoveled into a long inclined chute 
that carries it to the grinders below, which are of the stone-crusher 
type. The pulp falls into a great vat, whence it is shoveled onto the 
presses. Two sprocket-geared power presses are used, and the cheeses 
are laid up in cloths as with us. In this factory the pomace is soaked 
and re-pressed. 

The must is pumped b}^ power apparatus to an adjacent shed, where 
it is received in great slate vats and wooden tanks, and in these it is 
carried through the first fermentation. From there the cider is pumped 
to a more permanent building for ripening and storage. The storage 
tanks range in capacity from 100 to 4,500 gallons each. Fermenta- 
tion is controlled by filtering and racking, as is usual in England, and 
a pasteurizer also is in use, but no opportunity offered to observe the 
effects of its use. 

When desired for market the cider is blended in large vats to suit the 
demands of the trade and then pumped through the Invicta filter into 
casks for shipment. Thousands of gallons of supposedly finished cider 
were to be seen stored in 50-gallon casks in the open, merely covered 
over with boughs and straw, and it was said to keep well under this 
treatment. 

The power used in operating this plant is a traction engine of about 
15 horsepower, such as is in general use on English farms for thrash- 
ing and doing various kinds of heavy work. The whole plant was 
very badly placed as to detail of structures and conditions for ban- 



73 

dling the product properly. Practical duplicates of this factory were 
observed elsewhere, and very fair cider was made on a large scale, but 
no reall}^ fine products from such plants were observed. 

The best large factory visited was at Hereford City, but here admit- 
tance to the operating rooms and cellars was refused, though an 
extended interview on the methods was given. These operators are 
patterning wholly after the French champagne makers. They have 
extensive cellars in which their product is finished at a temperature 
of 47 to 50 F. They explained their system of blending the must 
before fermentation, which, by the wa\\ is one of the most important 
operations in determining the grade of product produced. 

On the estate of Lord Sudley, in Worcestershire, some very inter- 
esting and decidedly successful amateur work in cider making was 
observed. Here the manager of the estate, Mr. Charles D. Wise, has 
for several years been studying and experimenting on the manufacture 
of fine bottled cider and perry, and he has succeeded remarkably well 
in some particulars. He has installed a small plant in a great circular 
brick structure, formerly used as a riding school. Here he grinds the 
fruit on a grater machine, using a portable farm engine. The pulp is 
pressed by a hand-power screw press, and the must is carried through 
the first fermentation in great tubs or vats. As soon as the lees are 
well separated, the cider is racked off and then filtered by gravity 
through wood pulp. This is accomplished by the use of a great tub 
elevated about 10 feet above the floor. In it is fitted a false perfo- 
rated bottom, a few inches above the real bottom, and between these is 
placed the filtering medium. The tub is filled with cider, and the 
clarified product is received below and placed in large casks about the 
course of the riding school to mature. 

The cider is permitted to remain in these casks from one year to 
eighteen months before bottling. Apparently very little technique is 
employed, but some of the product is excellent. How much failed to 
turn out well was not ascertained. 

The experiments on cider making in England, conducted conjointly 
by the Board of Agriculture and the Bath and West Agricultural 
Society, are carried on at Butleigh Court, the country seat of R. Neville 
Grenville, esq., in Somersetshire, near Glastonbury (PI. VII). Mr. 
Grenville is personally interested in this work, and has devoted con- 
siderable time and money to it, and Mr. F. J. Lloyd, of London, a 
consulting chemist, has supervised for the authorities the more techni- 
cal aspects of the work. The reports on this work can be found in 
full in the annual volumes of the Bath and West of England Society. 

The cider house at this place is equipped in part on French models. 
The fruit is stored in a loft, and is ground on a machine at the level of 
the upper floor, whence the pulp falls to the press below. The grinder 
is of the German pattern with stone rollers. The pulp is pressed on a 



74 

hand-power screw press at about 40 tons pressure. The cheese is laid 
up in cloths and well pressed, but only once, the pomace being then 
used to feed the cattle on the place. 

The must is pumped back into the upper s'torj' and placed in open 
tanks (here called ''keeves") of about 60 to T5 gallons capacit3^ In 
these the must is carefully watched, and the top lees are skimmed off 
until the cider reaches a state of limpidity which warrants racking off. 
At this stage the liquor is drawn off* in pipes to the lower room and 
either placed directly in casks for maturing or run through the Invicta 
filter, according to circumstances; that is, if the cider can be drawn 
clear, it is best run directly into casks, but, if "'troubled," it is filtered 
and then run into casks. The storage casks i*ange in size from 100 to 
250 gallons. 

In this small factor}^ all the critical data which should govern the 
technique were observed, as, for instance, the chemical composition 
of the fruit and the specific gravity of must at grinding and at each 
stage of fermentation. A most elaborate cellar record is kept of the 
casks in the storage rooms and regarding the results of bottling at 
various times. It is too soon to speak positively of the lessons to be 
learned from these examinations and observations, but it is certainly 
b}" such observations and studies that the knowledge of the subject is 
to be advanced. 

The product sampled at Butleigh Court was of fine qualitv but, as 
elsewhere, there were "misses'* in some cases. Accommodations for 
accurate cellar work are needed. 

PRODUCTION OF THE MUST. 

The appliances used in reducing the apples to pulp and expressing 
the juice therefrom have already" been described. Yet several impor- 
tant points in relation to the production of the must remain to be 
discussed. 

RIPENESS OF THE FRUIT. 

The ripeness of the fruit, or its condition in relation to those obscure 
processes which go on after maturity in the pome fruits and bring 
them into their most favorable condition as to quantity of sugar and 
quality of juice, is a ver}- important consideration in this connection. 
It was especiall}^ noted in the French factories that they did not grind 
the fruit until it was in perfect condition as to ripeness, but com- 
parativel}' little attention was paid to this matter in the German and 
English factories visited. 

The important fact that the sugars in fruits increase to a maximum 
point, which is doubtless reached at or near the stage of perfect ripe- 
ness, ought not to be lost sight of either in cider or vinegar work. 
There are, however, very few valuable data concerning the composition 



Bui. 71, Bureau of Chemistry, U. S. Dept. Agr. 



Plate VII. 






Fig. 1. Butleigh Court, Somersetshire, Englanp, Seat of 
English Cider Experiment Station. 




Fig. 2. The Cider-apple Orchard at Butleigh Court. 



75 

of apples during the process of ripening. This is an important field 
for critical study which ought to give results of decided economic value. 

MIXING VARIETIES OF APPLES. 

Under the comparison of the composition of fruits, the great vari- 
ability of different kinds of apples has been shown. But there are 
other characteristics of apples which can not be expressed in terms of 
chemical data, such as their taste and aroma, and these factors have to 
do with making a good cider in only a lesser degree than sugars, acids, 
and tannin. The blending of fruits at grinding appears to be an almost 
universal practice in France. Every maker appears to exercise his own 
judgment about the proportions of the several varieties to be used, 
sampling the fruits by taste and smell. There are, for instance, many 
French varieties which have a ver}" high content of tannin. These are 
not used separately in cider making, but are mixed with sweet and 
acid fruits to secure a proper average composition. The question of 
blending or not resolves itself finally to this: Can we hope to secure 
by selection a perfectly proportioned fruit as to its chemical compo- 
sition and other qualities, or not? This desideratum is certainly far 
from being realized at present. 

In German}^ very little special attention is paid to the subject of 
blending except in the use of Sorhus domestica, as already noted. In 
this they have a fruit of the greatest importance, a fact which did not 
appear to be fully realized. The ordinaiy German varieties of apples 
present few characteristics to lead one to a study of blending. 

In England the best makers talk about blending, but handle their 
really good varieties in such a bad manner, in man}^ cases, as to leave 
little chance of realizing the best results. At one of the best English 
factories visited the manager explained that he ground the varieties 
separately, expressed the must, tested it as rapidly as possible, and 
blended as it was run into the fermentation casks. This is certainly 
the most scientific method of blending. 

Some French writers recommend for the best standard ciders to use 
one-third sweet fruit to two-thirds bitter fruit, and for household use 
two-thirds sweet and one-third bitter fruit; but such attempts at exact 
proportions are worthless. The whole question must be determined 
on the spot for the particular fruits in hand. However important 
this question may be in relation to standard products, no really impor- 
tant data regarding it were obtained. 

Unfortunately in the United States we have so few distinctively 
cider fruits in cultivation and so few technical data in regard to our 
common varieties that advice on this point must await further investi- 
gation. Meanwhile, good judgment applied along the lines here indi- 
cated will be a better guide than figures as to proportions of this or 
that variet3^ 



76 

WASHING THE FRUIT. 

In many places in Germany and some places in France washing the 
fruit before grinding was found to be largely practiced. Where the 
fruit is actuall}^ soiled this operation is greatl}' to be commended, but 
it was practiced in manj^ places regardless of this point. To run all 
fruit through a washing vat simply as a part of a system seems to be 
unwarranted on several grounds: (1) It is useless in case of fruits that 
have been harvested in a proper condition; (2) if elevated directly 
from the washing vat to the grinder the fruit carries with it consider- 
able water, which reduces the specific gravity or richness of the must, 
and (3) there is every probability that washing reduces considerably 
the yeasts present on the fruits. This under some conditions is of 
critical importance, and needs to be considered in relation to the practice 
of sowing the must with active yeast cultures. 

There are heard in discussion and found in the literature of the subject 
statements about drying the fruits after washing, but this does not 
seem to be practiced, nor was a mill seen constructed with any idea of 
permitting the fruits to dry before crushing. If the water is not fre- 
quently changed in the tank it will soil rather than clean the apples. 
Fruit carrying impurities should never be stored or ground with clean 
fruit even after it has been washed, as to do so is simply to furnish to 
the must the organisms of mal-fermentation and other substances, which 
will most likely prove harmful. The international cider congress held 
at Paris in October, 1900, expressed by vote the opinion that washing 
fruits before grinding ought only to be practiced where cleanliness 
made it necessary. 

GRINDING OR CRUSHING THE FRUIT. 

The end in view in reducing the fruit to pulp is to make it possible 
to extract the juice by pressure. Some fruits can be more or less pier- 
fectly pressed without grinding, but this is not possible with the apple. 
The cells of the apple hold their juices quite tenaciously, and must 
be definitely ruptured. Hence the method which will most perfectly 
rupture the constituent cells is probably the best to employ. As pre- 
viously stated, perhaps the German "greif " mill accomplishes this 
purpose better than those of any other type. This view was advanced 
by German and English cider makers, and indorsed to some extent by 
the French. 

It was everywhere stated b}^ the best makers that the seeds must 
neither be cut nor crushed to any extent, because their oily and nitrog- 
enous constituents directly injure the ciders by contributing flavoring 
matter of an unpleasant nature and nitrogenous substance in which the 
organisms causing putrescence find a desirable medium for develop- 
ment. This opinion was universally accepted in all the factories vis- 
ited, although this view is contrarj'^ to that of the early English and 



77 

American writers. The chemical analyses of seeds of pome fruits 
indicate that the opinion is based on good grounds. The delicate 
fruit aroma ^delds the bouquet desired in the cider. The oily principle 
in the seeds tends to destroy this, and certainly nitrogenous matter 
is not desirable to any extent in must which is to be fermented into 
a beverage. There is ordinarily plenty of nitrogenous matter in apple 
must to support yeast growth. However, slightly contradictory as it 
may seem, the French makers aim to crush the seeds for the prepara- 
tion of 'boisson.'' claiming that, as the pomace is largely deprived of 
its aromatic constituents when the pure juice is extracted, the oil in 
the seeds adds to the quality of this low-grade cider. 

The fineness of grinding affects to some extent the facilit}'^ with 
which the juice can be expressed. If the pulp is too mushy, it presses 
badly, especially when the cheese is made up in cloths. In this matter 
there is a proper mean, which no one se6ms to be able to define in an 
entirely satisfactory manner. It is often expressed in this form, that 
not over 2 per cent of the seeds should be cut or crushed in reducing 
the fruit to pulp for first pressing. 

For preparing must b3^ the dift'usion process, mentioned elsewhere 
in this report, the fruit is not ground or crushed as for pressing, but 
it is cut or shavad into thin slices, as it is found that with these 
extraction by difiusion goes on more perfectly than with pulped fruit. 

MACERATION OF PULP. 

The Germans are strong advocates of maceration, i. e., allowing the 
fruit to stand in its own juice, because by this process they believe the 
sugar is more perfectly extracted. The}^ claim that the juice acts upon 
the unbroken cells and assists in liberating their liquid contents. This 
would certainly be true if fermentation were fairly begun before 
pressing. The writer's experience is against permitting the pulp to 
ferment before pressing, but these questions need to be approached 
from the standpoint of scientifically conducted experiments before 
much can be said that is definite. 

MM. Seguin and Pailheret, at the National Agricultural College, 
Rennes, France, have made a number of experiments in a small way 
upon this question and they have found in every instance that macera- 
tion increases the totals of sugar, acids, mucilage, and ash in the must, 
but decreases the tannin, and leaves, finalh% an almost colorless must. 
This latter point is contrary to the German opinion. The French do 
not generall}' practice maceration of the pulp before pressing. In the 
writer's opinion maceration for more than eight or ten hours is liable 
to stock the whole mass of pulp with man}^ undesirable organisms and 
render control of the fermentation far more difficult than it would 
otherwise be unless the pulp is sown at once on grinding with pure 
cultures of veast. 



78 

EXPRESSING THE MUST. 

The older methods of laying up the pulp preparatory to pressing 
possess no particular merits to call for further remarks than those 
already made. 

The modern, double-acting, ratchet screw presses, so much used by 
the French, and the hydraulic press, or some better form of machine, 
must be the presses of the future. Hand h3'draulic presses are in use 
in France, and in all the medium-sized and large factories these mod- 
ern machines must make headway against the obsolete and laborious 
hand presses of the old st3'le. 

When the fruit is carefully pulped in the most correct manner, and 
subjected to from 80 to 100 tons direct pressure for a sufficient 
length of time, the possibility of again manipulating this pomace so 
as to derive sufficient must to warrant the effort is indeed slight. 
This is especially true when the pulp is well laid in thin lozenges in 
the coarsely woven seine-twine cloths used in the best American mills. 
Hair cloths and various devices are used abroad, but none of these 
compared well with our best American cheese cloths. 

SOAKING THE POMACE. 

One must distinguish clearly between the after maceration of the 
pomace and the maceration of the pulp in its own juice. The later 
operation is better named ''soaking." If there is any method by 
which the pomace can ever be handled with a view to more perfectly 
exhausting it than is accomplished by direct pressing, it would seem 
that soaking in warm water is by far the most promising one. 

If American fruits were as rich in saccharine properties as the 
French appear to be, it is possible that a considerable quantity of the 
juice of second pressing or of the must extracted by diffusion could 
be mixed with the rich juice of first pressings and still produce a must 
sufficiently rich for good cider or vinegar. The imperfect methods 
of expressing the juice emploj^ed in many places abroad give to this 
question more importance than it has with us; but the question of its 
utility or nonutility in large factories is yet to be settled after more 
technical investigation. 

FERMENTATION OF CIDER. 

In the minds of some, fermentation is a very simple operation. Mr. 
A. Hauchecorne says in his elementary treatise on cider:'* " The art of 
making good cider is very simple, and includes the following four 
conditions: Ripe fruits, clean water, a barrel free from taints and 
odors, and later racking off." On the other hand, Mr. G. Power ^ says: 
"Of all the operations necessary in the manufacture of cider, the fer- 

aLe Cidre, p. 7. 

^Culture du Pommier et Fabrication du Cidre, 1: 102. 



ri> 



79 

mentation is certainly the most difficult and the most important. This 
is true of all beverages, but with cider one encounters difficulties of a 
special nature." Dr. A. Cluss/* writing of North Germany, says: 

We shall now speak of fermentation and the management of the cellar, those fac- 
tors which have the greatest influence upon the resultant product, and * * * in 
which the greatest faults have been committed. One can say without exaggeration 
that the misfortunes in making cider, about which so many moan, are due not to 
the poor raw material nor to faults in the pressing, but almost without exception to 
ignorance of the foundation principles of fermentation, and especially to the bad 
condition of the cellars and cellar utensils which universally prevails. 

The above quotations illustrate the extremes of opinion on this sub- 
ject. Everyone in the United States who has tried to make fine 
sound cider will, I think, agree heartily with Power and indorse with- 
out exception the views of Dr. Cluss. 

ROOM, VESSELS, AND APPLIANCES USED. 

The first object to be kept in view in the construction of a fermen- 
tation room is the control of temperature conditions; the second, con- 
venience of location to the general operating room and to the final 
storage room; and the third, facilities for maintaining perfect cleanli- 
ness and ventilation. 

As types of factories meeting these requirements to a considerable 
extent, the factory at St. Ouen-de-Thouberville, France, and the Ger- 
man factories having single and double cellars may be cited. 

On beginning the season's work the fermentation room should be 
put in perfect order as to cleanliness,' the walls and floors being newly 
whitewashed. The casks or vats should be put in the most perfect 
order, cleansed carefully inside and out, and arranged with reference 
to the convenience of filling, racking off, and other operations. 

TEMPERATURE OF FERMENTATION ROOM. 

On this point the Germans are much more careful than the French 
or. English. The French structures are largely exposed to the influ- 
ence of daily fluctuations in atmospheric conditions, and whenever 
there is a considerable daily variation in the temperature it is quite 
impossible to carry on an even, well-ordered fermentation. 

The alcoholic ferments (commonly called yeasts), like all other plant 
organisms, have an optimum temperature for growth, and it has been 
determined that this temperature is about 18 to 24 C. (65 to 75 F.). 
But it is also true that, at this temperature, the growth of the yeast 
plants is apt to be very rapid, producing a rather too violent fermen- 
tation which disturbs the orderly management of the must. At a 
lower temperature fermentation can be carried on in a more orderly 
way, if once well started, hence, 13 to 18 C. (55 to 65 F.) has been 

Apfelweinbereitung, p. 61 et seq. 



80 

found a more desirable temperatu-re for the main fermentation room. 
At a temperature reduced much below the minimum gfiven the must 
will not start a proper fermentation, and when it is introduced into the 
casks especially if they are large ones at a lower temperature, 
some difficulty will be experienced unless the must is artificiall}' 
warmed. This can be accomplished by warming a portion and pour- 
ing this into the casks, but this portion of the must should never be 
heated to a temperature above 50^ or 60^ C. (120'^ to 140^ F.). 

VESSELS USED IN FERMENTATION. 

Many styles of casks or vats for the first fermentation are in use. 
In England open vats were frequently seen. These were of wood and 
slate, and held from 60 to several hundred gallons. The}" were placed 
in the workrooms, or in rooms adjacent thereto, or out of doors under 
a shed roof. Many English makers, however, cany on the first fer- 
mentation in casks both small and large. Some use inferior 50 to 60 
gallon casks lying in a shed, or in the open, but the best makers use 
larger casks or vats holding 100 to 500 gallons, and even larger ones 
for the tumultuous fermentation. Those who use the open vats quite 
generally allude to this part of the process as "keeving"the cider, 
plainly a corruption of the French word "cuvage." 

French makers verj^ largely ferment first in immense casks holding 
from 500 to 1,200 gallons, but they also occasionally Use great wooden 
and slate vats open at the top. 

In Germany only large casks are used, holding 500 to 2,000 liters 
(132 to 528 gallons). In fact, the German system of fermentation 
admits of nothing else but casks. These are uniformly closed to 
guard against the entrance of germ-laden air. Much has been said 
in the literature of the subject concerning the various kinds and sizes 
of vessels used for fermenting the cider. The size of the vessels is of 
the very greatest importance. Every maker whose work is worthj^ 
of commendation was observed to be using large vessels for ferment- 
ing the must. About 500 liters (132 gallons) was the smallest size 
recommended, and above this the}' ran to 6,000 liters (1,585 gallons). 

There are several reasons which have more or less weight in empha- 
sizing the necessitv of having large vessels. One of the first is that a 
large quantity of must brought into a cask at proper temperature is 
much less subject to atmospheric changes and, hence, a safe, even fer- 
mentation can be carried on with greater certainty. There is also a 
very persistently repeated statement that the fermentation of the must 
in these large casks produces a marked eflfect upon quality. It can be 
readil}' understood that the use of these very large vessels will pro- 
duce a considerable quantit}^ of finished product of like character 
which can not be so well accomplished in small vessels. There will 
also be less dregs in proportion to the quantit}'^ of must if one employs 



81 

large vessels instead of small ones. The control of a large cask 
requires no more attention, and often not so much as a small one. 

FILLING THE VESSELS. 

A convenient method of filling the vessels plays a very important 
part in handling the must. In manj' places this is accomplished by 
power pumps, which deliver the must to the receptacles placed in 
adjacent rooms or in another building. When the press room is over 
the fermentation room, filling is accomplished b}" gravity. Hose pipes 
are largely used for this work, but brass or copper must be used for 
all metal fittings. The less the must comes in contact with the air 
after it leaves the press the less liable it is to be contaminated with 
various undesirable organisms. The pumps and pipes used must be 
kept scrupulously clean. 

The height to which the cask is filled with must bears upon the 
method of fermentation to be emploj^ed. In England the old practice 
of running the barrels or casks full so that they would "work them- 
selves clean " is still in use to some extent, as it is in this country, but 
all progressive makers in England and elsewhei*e have abandoned this 
practice. Whatever modern system one ma}^ follow, the vessel is 
never filled so full that it will run over during the tumultuous fermen- 
tation. In the use of open vats the English almost invariably fill within 
several inches or a foot of the top and skim the lees which rise one or 
more times, thus exposing the nmst to the air and also causing the lees 
to be mixed more or less through the liquid. In England no attempt 
was made, so far as observed by the writer, to control the exit of gas 
or entrance of air further than to prevent the entrance of insects by 
some sort of temporary covering. 

The French ferment almost universalh'' in large casks or closed 
upright tanks, and it is rare indeed one sees an open vat. But when 
such vats are used, the}" permit the top lees to rest unbroken, forming 
a "head," the so-called "chapeau," over the liquor. In casks they 
usually leave a space of 8 inches to 1 foot below the bung unfilled. 
This permits the head to form without any overflow of lees. 

In Germany they invariably leave a space of from 8 to 12 inches below 
the bung unfilled, but with an entirely different end in view from that 
of the Frenchman. The latter makes much of the proper appearance 
of the "chapeau," or top lees, and it is an article of his faith that this 
cover shall not be broken or permitted to fall back into the liquor. 
But the Germans, on the contrary, purposely preserve these lees from 
overflow and desire them to fall back through the liquor and rest at 
the bottom of the cask. They argue that this secures inclusive fer- 
mentation, and utilizes all alcoholic material in the top lees which 
would be lost by skimming or by drawing the liquor away from the 
lees. 

17247 No. 7103 6 



82 



CONTROLLING THE EXIT AND ENTRANCE OF GASES. 

When fermentation occurs in the open vats, or "keeves," natu- 
rally one can not control the contact of air with the surface of the must. 
But the French, by permitting the top lees to rest, in a large measure 
guard the liquor from contact with the air. The reasons for thus 
guarding the must do not appear to be recognized by English makers, 
but are quite generally considered in France, and very strictly so in 
Germany. If the must is fermented in closed vessels, it is a very 
simple matter to guard the entrance from germ-laden air by the use 
of simple devices such as are shown in the accompanxnng illustrations. 

In figure 1 5 is shown a device which was found in use to some extent 




Fig. 15. Noel device for ventilating fermentation casks. 

in France, the character of which will be quite readily understood from 
the illustration. The metal base (a) screws into the cask and carries 
two connected glass chambers {h and c). The metal cap (d) unscrews 
to allow the entrance of liquid to the control chamber (c). When the 
cask is filled to the proper height, the bunghole is securely closed, and 
this device is either screwed into a small central opening in the bung 
or into a hole in the cask near the bung. The liquid desired for puri- 
fying the air either 30 per cent alcohol or 10 per cent sulphuric acid 
is poured into the chamber (<?) until both glass chambers are about 
half full; then the apparatus is ready foi- operation. Should the pres- 
sure decrease in the cask by reason of falling temperature air can only 
enter by passing through this apparatus in a course contrary to the 



83 

arrows, and hence will be washed clear of germs. On the increase of 
pressure through fermentation activity the gas passes out at low pres- 
sure by depressing the liquor in {h) until it gains exit, as indicated by 
the arrows. This is the Noel air controller; but in the writer's work it 
has proved entirely too complicated and too difficult to keep clean for 
practical use. The principle of air control is undoubtedly correct, 
but it is better accomplished by some of the following devices: 

The German "fermentation funnel" (fig. 16) is a simple and far 
better device for controlling the air. This is a pottery or porcelain 
device having a central tapering stem (a) with a basin-like vessel (5) 




Fig. 16. German earthenware ventilating funnel vertical section. 



around its upper end. 



of the outer rim, and is hollow 



The central stem (c) rises nearly to the height 
Over this hollow stem rests a remova- 
ble cap (d), which extends to the bottom of the basin. The lower rim 
of this cap where it rests under the liquid is notched for the passage 
of gases, as indicated by the arrows. This device is inserted in the 
bunghole of the cask, and by reason of the tapering stem can be made 
to fit quite tightly; but it is always better to use some paraffin wax 
around it. The control liquid is placed in the outer basin until it is 
about one-third full; then the cap is put on and the device is ready for 
operation. While this is an awkward looking device, it is the best 



84 

known to the writer for practical work. The large central opening 
permits the operator to take the temperature of the must, or remove 
samples for examination at pleasure without displacing the entire 
apparatus, and it can be quickly and perfectly cleaned. 

A third device (fig. 17), also of German origin, answers a good pur- 
pose, especially in laboratorj^ work, but it is not recommended for 
cellar work. This is called the glycerin control tube. It is made of 
glass, and is operated by inserting the stem through a bung ('/). Gly- 
cerin or one of the liquids mentioned above is introduced at the fun- 
nel (h) until the bulb {d) is half 
full. The principle is exactly 
the same as with the previous 
devices. Should the pressure 
decrease in the vessel air can 
enter through the liquid by 
reason of the enlargements {d 
and e). The enlargement (<?) 
permits the escape of gas from 
the vessel without driving out 
the control liquid. 

A very simple device is 
shown in figure 18. This con- 
sists simply of a bent tube in- 
serted in a perforated bung, 
the outer end being so placed 
that it rests below the surface 
of the liquid in a basin. This 
device is very faulty because 
if, for any reason, pressure 
decreases in the cask the liquor 
from the basin will be drawn 
into the must. In practice the 
best devices are found to be 
of the greatest assistance in 
indicating the activity of the 
fermentation. To the practiced operator they become at once the 
barometer which warns him of danger or assures him of the proper 
progress of fermentation. 




Fig. 17. Glycerin ventilating funnel. 



VENTILATING BUNGS AND SPIGOTS FOR CASKS. 

In connection with the subject of fermentation funnels, the use of a 
ventilating bung should be mentioned. After the first fermentation 
has subsided and the liquor has been placed in casks for the second 
fermentation, it is desirable to close the casks tightly at least so as to 
exclude as far as possible the entrance of air. Yet in so doing one 



85 



can not be certain but that a sufficiently strong fermentation may set 
in to spring the staves or head of the cask. This misfortune is obvi- 
ated by using some sort of a safety vent. 

The best simple vent for this purpose that was seen is the Noel 
vent bung (fig. 19). A central opening of sufficient size is cut about 
half way through this bung and then is continued at a diameter about 
one-half as great the rest of the way. On the shoulder thus formed 
a valve {a) is placed and held by the spiral spring seen in the cross 




Fig. 18. Bent ventilating tube. 

section. The spring is supported above by a metal plate screwed 
over the opening in the top of the bung. The spring should be of 
sufficient strength to hold 2 to 4 pounds of pressure, and the mech- 
anism of the valve and its seat should be so perfect as to prevent 
the ingress of air. If the bung is sterilized and driven tightly into 
place, it will insure proper ventilation of the barrel or cask and pro- 
tect the liquor very well from the entrance of extraneous organisms. 

One of the most important considerations 
about the fermentation casks is the means of 
drawing off the liquor readily when this 
becomes necessary. Many instances were 
seen in England and Germany where the 
fermentation was carried on in barrels and 
casks which had but one opening, namely, 
the large bunghole; hence, in racking off, it 
was necessary to introduce a pipe at this opening, lower it to what 
was considered a proper position, and then siphon off the liquid. 
This method is extremely faulty, however, because of the disturbance 
of the top lees and the difficulty of determining the depth to which 
the tube should be lowered into the vessel so as not to take up the 
dregs. 

Every vessel used for fermenting the must should be furnished with 
a spigot so situated that it will draw off the liquor as near to the dregs 




Fig. 19. Noel ventilating bung. 



86 

as can be safely accomplished without disturbing them.- If this spigot 
can be furnished at the outer end with a hose connection of proper 
size the liquor can be run directly to the cask designed for second fer- 
mentation in those buildings where successive cellar stories are used. 
In this case it is necessary to fit a glass bulb into the hose so as to 
watch the condition of the liquor as it flows. If the must is transfer- 
red to vessels on the same level a pump is generally used. The French 
makers commonly place spigots in all vessels employed for fer- 
mentation work. These enable them to note precisely the condition of 
the must without disturbing the lees. The large casks should also be 
uniformly fitted with manholes in order that the}' may be readily 
cleaned after use. 

THE CHARACTER OF THE MUST. 

On bringing the must into the casks or vats for fermentation, it is 
of prime importance that the operator should know its composition as 
nearly as may be. To determine this accuratel}- is the work of a 
chemist, but at no factory visited was there evidence of the employ- 
ment of a chemist for this purpose. True, a number of the proprie- 
tors are themselves analysts. 

USE OF DENSIMETERS. 

Everywhere in Europe the makers use, with more or less care, some 
form of must spindle or densimeter for estimating the sugar content of 
the juice. Those most commonly used are the ordinary specific gravity 
spindle, the Oechsle spindle (which, in fact, is the same thing with the 
first two figures on the left omitted), and the Beaume must spindle. 
The last is not a convenient form of spindle, as may be seen from 
Table XI. Its degrees do not permit of ready comparison with other 
standards. 

It is the custom to take the density of the fresh must on one of these 
spindles and mark the result on the casks. Some makers keep a record 
of the casks by number in a cellar book, and enter not only these data, 
but notes on the fruit used, the character of the fermentation as it 
progresses, and all subsequent readings of density- and manipulations 
of the cider. Also the records of temperature of the must and cellar 
are kept. Without some such system intelligent control of the work 
is impossible. 

The following table gives a comparison of the readings of the three 
spindles mentioned, the proximate percentages of sugar at the different 
densities, and the approximate percentage of alcohol which will result 
from its fermentation at each reading of the densimeter: 



87 



Table XI. Readings of different densimeters and approximate solids and sugar content, 
with the indicated percentage of alcohol after fermentation is completed. 



Specific 
gravity. 


Oechsle. 


Beaum6. 


Solids. 


Sugar. 


Alcohol. 




Degrees. 


Degrees. 


Per cent. 


Per cent. 


Per cent. 


1.040 


40 


5.7 


10.0 


8.00 


4.0 


1.041 


41 


5.8 


10.3 


8.21 


4.105 \ 


1.042 


42 


5.9 


10.5 


8.42 


4.21 


1.043 


43 


6.1 


10.7 


8.63 


4.315 


1.044 


44 


6.2 


11.0 


8.84 


4.42 


1.045 


45 


6.3 


11.2 


9.05 


4.525 


1.046 


46 


6.5 


11.5 


9.27 


4.635 


1.047 


47 


6.6 


11.7 


9.49 


4.745 


1.048 


48 


6.7 


11.9 


9.71 


4.855 


1.049 


49 


6.9 


12.2 


9.93 


4.965 


1.050 


no 


7.0 


12.4 


10.15 


5.075 


1.051 


51 


7.1 


12.6 


10.38 


5.19 


1.052 


52 


7.3 


12.9 


10.61 


5.305 


1.053 


53 


7.4 


13.1 


10.84 


5.42 


1.0.54 


54 


7.5 


13.3 


11.07 


5.535 


1.055 


55 


7.7 


13.6 


11.30 


5.65 


1.056 


56 


7.8 


13.8 


11.54 


5.77 


1.057 


57 


7.9 


14.0 


11.78 


5.89 


1.058 


58 


8.1 


14.3 


12.02 


6.01 


1.059 


59 


8.2 


14.5 


12.26 


6.13 


1.060 


60 


8.3 


14.7 


12.50 


6.25 


1.061 


61 


8.5 


15.0 


12.75 


6.375 


1.062 


62 


8.55 


15.2 


13.00 


6.50 


1.063 


63 


8.7 


15.4 


13.25 


6. 625 


1.064 


64 


8.9 


15.7 


13.50 


6.75 


1. 065 


65 


9.0 


15.9 


13.75 


6.875 


1.066 


66 


9.1 


16.1 


14.01 


7.005 


1.067 


67 


9.2 


16.3 


14.27 


7.135 


1.068 


68 


9.4 


16.6 


14.53 


7.265 


1.069 


69 


9.5 


16.8 


14.79 


7.395 


1.070 


70 


9.6 


17.0 


15.05 


7.525 


1.071 


71 


9.8 


17.3 


15.32 


7.66 


1.072 


72 


9.9 


17.5 


15.59 


7.795 


1.073 


73 


10.0 


17.7 


15.% 


7.98 


1.074 


74 


10.1 


17.9 


16.23 


8.115 


1.075 


75 


10.3 


18.2 


16.50 


8.25 



WHAT IS A STANDARD MUST? 

To this query the investigations made have given no answer, nor 
does the literature materially aid one. There have been presented in 
some of the preceding sections many analyses of apple nmst made in 
different countries, and hundreds more could be quoted. These analy- 
ses differ widely from the standards of the tables arranged by differ- 
ent authors to show the saccharine content of a fruit juice in comparison 
with specific gravity. Unfortunately, the methods and the instruments 
used are far from uniform in the various laboratories where these 
determinations have been made, and the chemists making them must 
necessarily vary in skill and precision; hence a mere inspection and 
comparison of these data do not lead to a true conclusion in regard to 
the composition of apple must. But this is the best that can be done 
at present, and the averages of the data previously presented are 
assembled in Table XII to serve our purpose in discussing the prob- 
able standard sugar content of a must: 



88 



Table XII. Average composition, of apple must for different countries. 



Countries 



Number ; Number 



French standard list 

French provisional list 

German (Kulisch) 

German (Behrens) 

German ( Kramer) 

English (Lloyd) 

American ( Browne) 

American ( Davidson ) 

American (Department of Ag 
riculture) 



of varie- 
ties. 



of 
analyses. 



292 
79 
29 
17 
15 
24 
10 
24 



Specific 
gravity. 



Total 
sugar. 



Average 
total 
sugar. 



1.0725 
1.0732 
1.0569 
1.0590 
1.0530 
1.0652 
1.0552 
1.0530 

1.0535 



Per cent. 
15.98 
15.55 
12.04 
13.38 
10.94 
14.66 
11.94 
9.58 

10.45 



Per cent, 
i 15.76 



14.30 



10.66 



Acid, i Tannin. 



Per cent. Per cent. 

( 0.229 0.262 

i 0.192 0.289 

[ 0.460 : 

i"'6.' 64 "!!!!!!!!!! 

0.303 0.220 

10.453 
0.35 0.022 
0.37 I 



From a comparison of the analyses given it is evident that the juice 
of the apple varies in average sugar content in relation to specific 
gravity in the different countries and in different parts of the same 
country. In fact a wide variation may be found in comparing differ- 
ent varieties of apples from the same orchard. This is a matter not 
yet properly investigated, but the existence of such variation must be 
conceded. Hence no strictly standard table of sugar contents in rela- 
tion to specific gravity is possible. 

Careful inspection of the published tables on specific gravit}' and 
relative sugar content, and a study of the actual anah'ses of apple 
must available, lead one to believe that the theoretical sugar content 
usually given is too high. In Table No. XI, there is given for com- 
parison the approximate sugar content which, in the writer's opinion, 
is likely to be found in normal apple must at the different densities 
indicated. True, the sugar percentages adopted in this table are empir- 
ical, but they are such probable averages within a small percentage of 
error that they are used to construct a table (No. XIII) to be used as 
a cellar guide in fermenting cider. This table appears to servo a very 
definite purpose, first, as a guide in the technique of fermentation, and, 
second, to assist in some measure in elucidating the further discussion. 
Table No. XI aids the manipulator of the must to estimate with con- 
siderable accuracy the sugar in the fresh must, and Table No. XIII 
assists him in watching intelligently the progress of fermentation. 
Thus, by the latter table, he is able to ascertain quickl}^ the approxi- 
mate quantities of sugar and alcohol in a femienting must of known 
original density. 

Attention was called to the presentation of these data in this form 
by the work of Mr. F. J. Lloyd, consulting chemist on cider experi- 
ments of the Bath and West of England Society. The work done 
under his direction on cellar records and technique was observed care- 
fully, and the ideas presented in his table and remarks in the journal 
of the above society for 1896 (pp. 139-164) are considered as very 
important. The same may be said of his other papers. The writer was 
;iot able, however, to adopt the figures of Mr. Lloyd's table for deter- 
mining the percentages of sugar and alcohol in fermenting must of a 



89 



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90 

known original specific gravity/ But by a study of the principle 
involved in this table, and by comparison with standard tables on spe- 
cific gravity and relative sugar content, and the actual analyses, Table 
No. XIII has been constructed. By it an operator may determine 
at any reading, between 1.040 and 1.070 on a standard hydrometer, 
the probable sugar content present, and the approximate alcoholic 
strength of the liquor. Thus he is enabled to know how the fermen- 
tation is progressing. As a cellar guide this will be a verj^ important 
help, and by reference to it the later discussion on the manipulation 
of the must will be more intelligible. 

As a basis for this table it was assumed that a must reading 1.040 
specific gravit}', contains 8 per cent of sugar. Kramer says 9 per cent, 
but this is surely too high for apples. Power says 8.9 per cent, which 
is also too high, at least for American fruit. Kramer's table then allows 
1 per cent increase in sugar for each 5 points (0.005) on the hydrom- 
eter, but this if logically carried out requires that the nonsaccharine 
solids increase proportionally more rapidly than the saccharine sub- 
stances. Analytical data are against this theory; hence, it has been 
estimated that the sugars increase 1.05 per cent for the first 5 points 
above 1.040, and beyond that at an increasing ratio found b}' adding 
an additional 0.05 per cent of sugar for each subsequent 5 points 
(0.005) on the hydrometer. 

But turning to the subject of relative decrease in sugar content 
below 1.040 it becomes necessary to allow a loss of 1 per cent for each 
0.005 on the hydrometer in order to exhaust the 8 per cent of sugar at 
unity 1.000 on the hydrometer. Yet, as there are solids other than 
sugar present, it is altogether improbable that this will show the true 
percentages if the liquid is considered to be water; but it realh^ con- 
sists of a mixture of two liquids, water which constitutes much the 
greater part, and alcohol which is lighter than water and which enters 
into the mixture in a constantly increasing proportion as fermentation 
progresses. Hence, for a nmst originall}^ showing 8 per cent of sugar, 
it is probable that unity (1.000 on the hydrometer) will about bring it 
to drjmess;" but by the same reasoning richer musts will not come to 
entire dr^'ness at unity. This the table shows when carried out on the 
principle that for each 1 per cent of sugar lost, 0.5 per cent of alcohol 
is formed. This ratio of alcohol for fermentable sugars is onl3" 
approximately correct. 

In using this table as a cellar guide, one notes in the left hand col- 
umn the hydrometer reading corresponding with the original density 
recorded for the must, and then finds in the box heads the present 
reading of the hydrometer; the figures for sugar and alcohol percent- 
ages at the intersection of the lines from these two readings will 
show approximately the present condition of the must as to alcohol 
and sugar content. 

In the technical phrase of fermentation work " dryness " means total absence of 
sugar. 



91 



FORTIFYING THE MUST. 



In this connection a few observations on the Subject of fortifying 
the must will be apposite. This practice was not observed either in 
England or Germany. Doubtless it may be done in these countries, 
especially in case -of perry (pear cider), but it did not seem to be a 
part of the regular system of cider making. In France, on the con- 
trary, sugaring up the weak must obtained from second pressing 
seems to be an important part of the business, and is so regularly 
practiced that the government makes a special rebate of the sugar tax 
on sugar so used. The government agents, however, very carefully 
see to it that all sugar withdrawn from bond for this purpose is 
denaturalized by addition of must, so that it can not possibly be resold 
in the markets. For 1898 (the figures for that year being the latest 
obtained) the government officers reported 188,760 pounds of sugar 
withdrawn for cider making, and 80,262,771 pounds withdrawn for 
sugaring wines. 

An apple must reading 1.010 on a standard hydrometer can, if prop- 
erly handled, be made to prodcice a cider approximating 4 per cent 
of alcohol, but it will be rare indeed that this result will actuall}^ be 
reached in practice. Hence it appears that a must reading at that 
figure is about the minimum in quality which can be properly employed 
for cider without fortifying, and this grade should be used only to 
prepare a cider for local consumption. This is not because a high 
percentage of alcohol is so desirable, but because it is not desirable to 
push the fermentation of a cider to the limit where there is no sac- 
charine substance left for the yeast to subsist upon, that is, until the 
liquor is absolutely "dry." 

If the cider is properly handled, the je&si will not entirely cease to 
be active for several years after bottling. This activity is of the 
greatest value in preserving the bouquet of the cider and keeping it 
sound. But if it is desired to produce a stronger cider from a low- 
grade must, reading approximately 1.010, one can add about 3 ounces 
of crystallized sugar per gallon for each 1 per cent of alcohol desired 
in addition to the normal quantity resulting from fermenting the 
natural must. This, howev.er, denaturalizes the cider, and should not 
be resorted to in excess of 1 per cent increase of alcohol. 

The French say the sugar should be inverted before using, but this 
seems doubtful, as the yeast will accomplish this itself, and probably 
the sugar will be consumed more slowly. 



STERILIZING THE MUST BY HEAT. 



This process is mentioned only to condemn it so far as cider making 
is concerned. Not a single maker worthy of credence in the factories 
visited abroad recommends or uses this method. It has been suggested 
as a means of controlling the initial fermentation, because, after ster- 



92 

ilizing by heat, one can sow yeasts into the must as desired, and thus 
bring about a fermentation at will, but the cooked taste contributed 
to the must by heating is difficult if not impossible to overcome. 
Heating or pasteurizing to check fermentation or insure keeping of 
cider is also just as faulty, and is never necessary in a properly man- 
aged cellar, unless one desires to preserve a partially fermented cider. 
For this purpose pasteurization at 60 to 70^ C. is practicable with goods 
which have sufficiently fermented in bottles to become sparkling. 

THE USE OF SPECIAL, YEASTS. 

Having brought the fresh must into the casks or vats for fermenta- 
tion, the modern cider maker has to consider not only the temperature 
of the must and of the room and the various other conditions already 
discussed, but also another question of very great importance: Shall 
the fermentation be left to the organisms normally present on the 
fruit and those which may at the time of grinding and pressing enter 
the must from contact with the air, the machinery, and the vessels? 
Every cider maker knows that under proper temperature conditions 
fermentation will quickly ensue after the juice has been placed in a 
receptacle. But the operator untrained in the scientific phases of this 
subject may not know how readily numerous undesirable organisms 
gain access to the fruit juice. These objectionable organisms are sure 
to be present upon the fruit, and especially so if unclean and unsound 
fruit is used. Or they may be present in parts of the machinery, 
especially if any parts have been left uncleaned after previous usage; 
and, what is perhaps still more important, these organisms may be 
present in great number in unclean barrels, casks, or other vessels. 

The numerous organisms (microscopic plants), both useful and harm- 
ful, which grow readily in fruit must can not be discussed here. 
Suffice it to say that the quality of the resultant product depends upon 
whether desirable or undesirable organisms gain the mastery in the must 
during initial fermentation. 

In order to insure the ascendency of the true yeasts in the early 
stages, and thus gi,ve them the control of the entire process of fer- 
mentation, there has recently been developed the practice of sowing 
the must with pure cultures of yeasts. Very often now special races 
of yeasts are used in order to secure certain desired qualities of 
bouquet, etc. , in the finished product. This practice is based upon the 
same principles as those which induce the good housewife to employ 
a proper yeast culture to make bread for the table. 

The discussion of this question in its various phases will not be 
undertaken here, but it should be noted that the practice of using 
pure and special cultures of yeast is becoming more and more common 
in foreign countries. In Germany practically all the important fac- 
tories visited employ these cultures, which are obtained in small flasks 



93 

from the Royal Pomological School at Geisenheim. The French 
makers are not at all unanimous in regard to the importance of using 
pure yeasts, and, from the observations made, it appears that very 
few use them intelligently. This is probabl}' one of the important 
reasons why French ciders lack that standard character so observable 
in German ciders. 

Below is given a free translation of the directions for using pure 
yeast cultures sent out by Dr. Wortmann from Geisenheim to all pur- . 
chasers of the same: 

DIRECTIONS FOR THE EMPLOYMENT OP PURE YEASTS IN THE FERMENTATION OF MUST. 

The flask containing the pure yeast should not be opened until just before using. 
Until then, in case it can not be used immediately, it should be kept standing in a 
cool, dry place (preferably an ice chest) ; but it will not serve as a good starter if left 
longer than two Aveeks, because the organisms decrease in vitality with time. 

Some days before the beginning of the real vintage, prepare about 10 gallons of 
freshly pressed must and boil it about five minutes (but not in a copper vessel), 
then put this boiled must into a wooden vessel, preferably a keg, while it is yet hot, 
and, after covering it with a clean linen cloth, let it cool off again to room temperature 
(about 20 C. or 68 F. ). Just as soon as cool enough, the contents of the flask of 
yeast should be poured into the must. 

During transportation a fresh-growing culture will have developed a strong pres- 
sure, and, therefore, in opening the flask the yeast may be partly lost through dis- 
charge caused by the gas. To obviate this, first bore through the stopper with a 
corkscrew, and let the flask stand some minutes until the carbon dioxid gas escapes, 
when there will be no danger. Open the flask in such a way that it is held with the 
mouth inclined over the vessel containing the cooled must. The flask should be 
rinsed out once with must; the keg or vessel should then be well covered and kept 
at room temperature, free from dust, until the must shows violent fermentation, 
which will be in two or three days. 

The use of this 10 gallons of pure yeast culture will now be according to the quan- 
tity of must which is to be fermented. With ordinary must that is, must reading 
1. 050 to 1. 060 specific gravity 1 gallon of the fermenting must is sufficient for from 
250 to 300 gallons of fresh must, and will bring it into fermentation promptly. With 
larger quantities of must, one should take a proportionally larger quantity of the fer- 
menting culture first made. 

For large establishments, a culture of 50 or 100 gallons can be first made by boil- 
ing the necessary must, putting it while hot into a perfectly clean but unsulphured 
barrel or cask. Sow as soon as cool with the yeast culture and handle just as 
directed above. 

This large culture of must fermenting with the pure yeast can serve as a supply 
from which the necessary quantity for starting the vats can be taken as needed, but 
fresh must should be boiled, cooled, and added to it as often as any of the culture is 
removed for use. 

In this manner one can draw from this supply according to his needs. So long as 
the ferrnentation is kept very active and the bung or opening well guarded, the cul- 
ture will remain pure enough for practical purposes. 

As the pure yeast is only efficacious if it comes in contact with fresh must, so one 
can, in case the pulp is allowed to ferment before pressing, by the prompt addition 
of the yeast to the pulp as ground, control the fermentation in the same. But in 
this case the addition of the pure yeast in the proportional quantities must be made 
to the pulp as ground. This operation is especially necessary in the preparation of 
red wine. 



94 

As by the addition of pure yeast fermentation starts up sooner, and also runs its 
course more quickly, the temperature of the fermenting rooms must not be too high, 
or else too violent a fermentation will be induced. It is sufficient to warm the fer- 
menting rooms or cellars to about 55 to 60 F. Also it is best to leave plenty of 
space in the casks for foam and vegetable matter thrown up by fermentation. 

With pure yeast cider will be finished earlier and clear itself sooner than when 
fermented without the addition of pure yeast; therefore, with this method cider 
must be racked off earlier than in case of spontaneous fermentation. 

OBSERVATION AND CONTROL OF FERMENTATION. 

The theoretic discussion of the physical phenomena involved in this 
process is not to be attempted here, and the brief discussion given is 
only warranted in such a report as this for the sake of rendering com- 
prehensible the operations and details described, 

DEFINITION AND DESCRIPTION OP FERMENTATION.* 

There was a time when this word was used to indicate the entire 
range of chemical changes which might occur in organic substances. 
To-day, with more exact knowledge on the subject, fermentation is 
limited to those changes which are induced by the growth of micro- 
scopic plants in organic substances. In the case of fruit juices, these 
organisms are bacteria and the true fungi, principally the latter. The 
fungous organisms considered belong to the group known as the 
Saccharomyces, or yeast fungi, to other closely related nonmycelial 
forms, and to the Mucorini and some few other true mycelial forms. 

Fermentation as relates to the physical phenomena involved may be 
defined as the breaking up of organic substance in solution as a result 
of the chemical activities of certain substances secreted during the 
growth of these microscopic plants; and alcoholic fermentation, as 
the result of the breaking up of sugars into alcohol and cs,rbonic acid, 
caused by the action of zymase, a ferment secreted during the growth 
of the yeast plants. Incidentally, sugar may be broken up into alcohol 
and carbon dioxid by a few other fungous forms. The yeasts, or Sac- 
charomyces proper, are, however, the true alcoholic ferments. Other 
forms need be only incidentally considered. The normal substratum, 
or place of growth of the yeasts proper, is the sugar solutions con- 
tained in the juices of fruits, or sugary compounds, in whatever parts 
of various plants they may occur. As a result of the growth of these 
yeast fungi, alcohol and carbon dioxid are formed. The first remains 
in the liquid and the second largely escapes as a gas. Theoretically, 
about 51.11 parts of alcohol will be formed and about 48.89 parts car- 
bon dioxid. Or we may say in general terms that the alcohol formed 
by properly controlled fermentation will practically equal one-half the 
sugar destroyed. The yeasts are said to consume a small percentage 
of the alcohol. 



Adapted from a paper presented by the writer before the American Pomological 
Society, September, 1901. 



95 

The following is quoted from Dr. Cluss:^ 

Under fermentation in its widest sense we understand every change in a substance 
that is brought about, either directly or indirectly, by the activity of low plant forms. 
Under fermentation in a narrower sense, or alcoholic fermentation, we understand 
every change in a substance by which certain kinds of sugar are decomposed through 
the activity of germs, so that, as the principal products of this decomposition, alcohol 
and carbonic-acid gas appear. 

In alcohol fermentation, as in every form of fermentation, we must consider three 
principal factors: 

( 1 ) The fermentation material, or the substance which is to be decomposed. 

(2) The fermentation products; that is, those bodies that arise from the decompo- 
sition of the sugars. 

(3) The controlling organisms of the fermentation; i. e., those plant forms which 
cause the decomposition. 

The fermentation material for alcoholic fermentation is provided by certain kinds 
of sugar, but not all kinds of sugar are capable of being fermented. Among those 
that can be fermented are grape sugar, fruit sugar, fnalt sugar, and cane sugar. But 
while in the brew mash and in the wort of the breweries malt sugar predominates, 
in fruit juice grape sugar and fruit sugar play the principal role as fermentation 
material. 

The principal products of alcoholic fermentation are ethyl alcohol (badly named 
alcohol) and carbon dioxid (CO2); but there are also small quantities of sulphuric 
acid, glycerin, and other by-products, among these being certain aromatic sub- 
stances of great importance in wine fermentation. If the sugar were separated 
evenly into alcohol and carbon dioxid, then out of 100 parts of grape sugar there 
would arise 51.11 parts of the former and 48.89 parts of the latter. But only about 
94 or 95 per cent of the sugar is consumed in the pure alcoholic fermentation, and 
the remaining part serves for the building up of these minor products and for the 
nourishment of the yeast germs. Thus it must be concluded, according to Pasteur, 
that out of 100 parts of grape sugar arise 48.5 parts alcohol, 46.6 parts carbonic acid, 
3.3 parts glycerin, and 0.6 part sulphuric acid, while about 1 per cent of the orig- 
inal sugar is used for the building up of the yeast cells. 

We have the yeasts in the widest sense of the word that is, the different kinds of 
fungi, as the sprouting fungi, mold fungi, and splitting fungi, which may form 
alcohol; but above all the rest the sprouting fungi, as the yeast in a narrower sense 
of the word, play the most important role. 

While the stages of fermentation as they should normally occur in 
the casks or vats will now be dealt with, it should be noted that there 
is always a possibility that mal-organisms may at any time gain con- 
trol of the must and produce results very different from those desired. 
These accidents of the fermentation room are due to some of the fun- 
gous plants and bacteria which are constantly associated with the true 
alcoholic ferments under all ordinary conditions. 

FIKST OR TUMULTUOUS FERMENTATION. 

Given the proper temperature conditions, apple must at once takes 
on a very active fermentation, which has been variously denominated 
as "tumultuous," "stormy," etc. The activity is greater in weak, 
acid juice than in rich must of good quality. Its progress is marked 

''Free translation from Dr. A. Cluss, "Apfelweinbereitung," pp. 63-64, 1901. 



96 

by the very rapid increase of the yeast plants, as a result of which a 
sort of boiling of the liquid is produced, much carbonic acid gas is 
liberated, and the minute bubbles of this gas rise through the liquid 
and escape with a hissing sound, often alluded to as the "singing of 
the cider." This development of the yeast is likely to be altogether 
too tumultuous if the temperature is high; hence the importance of 
regulating the temperature. If the characteristic fermentation super- 
venes within twent3'-four to forty -eight hours, it is a sign that proper 
progress is being made. The liquid at once becomes turbid and much 
disturbed, and small particles of vegetable matter rise to the surface, 
accompanied by more or less viscid mucilaginous material, all of 
which is really borne upward by the escaping gas. At first this sur- 
face material is light and froth}^ but should assume more and more 
the character of a well-defined crust or covering, the "'chapeau" so 
often mentioned by the French. This, however, is not considered 
important by some. The English makers seem to be pleased if the 
head forms well in their "keev^es," because they can then skim it off 
and be rid of so much of the lees, but if it does not form the}' make 
no effort to secure its formation. On the other hand, the French 
maker, if the head or "chapeau" does not form, at once concludes 
that his must is sick, and takes steps to set it right. It may be that 
unfavorable temperature is the sole trouble, or at other times there 
really is a lack of proper yeast organisms in the must. 

No one appears to explain this matter of the formation of top lees or 
"head" on the basis of observed facts, nOr does it appear that any suffi- 
ciently critical chemical study has been made of the subject. From 
all the observations made this seems to be a very important feature of 
the first fermentation, and it should be thoroughl}" studied. Some of 
the remedies proposed by the manufacturers for application in case 
the head does not form properly, appear not to deserve serious con- 
sideration, namely, the addition of small quantities of ashes boiled in 
cider, or of clay. The only result of such substances would be to 
neutralize the acids, which, as a rule, would prove quite injurious to 
the growth of the j^easts. In fact, the writer has full}^ proven that 
neutralizing the acids checks the normal fermentation very decidedly. 
It is also proposed by some makers to add a portion of the head from a 
properly fermenting cask; and this has some element of sound sense in 
it, because one would thus sow the must with vigorous yeasts, but he 
would also sow it with many other organisms, probably some unde- 
sirable ones. 

The German makers care little or nothing about the formation of 
the head or top lees, for reasons alreadj^ explained, but they watch 
caref ull}^ to see that the must comes into strong fermentation, and if 
this does not occur at the proper time they sow strong yeast cultures 
into the must, correct the temperature if necessary, and, as a yeast 



97 

stimulant, they sometimes use ammonium cnlorid. Whether this is 
used to any extent in the factories was not ascertained, but it is used 
in critical work. The quantity used may vary, but ought to range 
between one-half and 1 gram per liter (2 to 4 grams to the gallon). 

Under proper conditions the tumultuous fermentation subsides in 
ten days to two weeks. The time required may be even longer, but it 
should not exceed three weeks. The English makers in general seemed 
not to have a very definite idea of the duration of this period. In fact, 
their practice of skimming the head tends to defeat the completion of 
this first stage, and constantly agitates the liquor and sets up sec- 
ondary fermentation, so that the cider does not clear itself of lees, 
and become limpid. The German cares not a fig about this, and permits 
the head to fall back through the liquor to the bottom. He is thor- 
oughly logical and practical in what he does, but he makes a different 
product from English, French, or American cider. After a careful 
study of all the points involved, the writer has adopted the French 
views about observing the formation of the head and the subsequent 
treatment of the cider. 

The close of the first period of fermentation is marked by the prac- 
tical cessation of the escape of gas; the cider ceases to "sing;" the 
head, if fermentation has been normal, loses its frothy character, 
becoming brownish, and it may crack in places; the larger lees, which 
were not upborne by the gas, and the yeast cells subside and rest at 
the bottom of the cask, and suddenly the cider becomes limpid and a 
clear beautiful amber in color. The taste has improved and is some- 
what piquant, but the liquor is yet sweet and very fruity in flavor. 
The specific gravity will have fallen 20 or 30 points, the alcohol test 
will show 2 to 2.5 per cent, and to many palates the cider is in fine 
condition for drinking. 

To determine the condition of fermenting cider accurately is the 
work of experience, and as an aid in examining the juice the spigot 
previously mentioned becomes important. From this a small amount 
of the cider can be drawn in a glass vessel as the indications point to 
quiescence, and by carefully observing its f reeness from lees, the color, 
absence of effervescence, specific gravity, etc. , one may judge its condi- 
tion accurately and determine when it is ready to rack off. This is the 
moment to draw the cider from between the lees. A few days' delay, 
or any disturbance of the cask, may throw down the head, and thus 
the liquor at once becomes troubled and the after fermentation sets in. 
If this happens, recourse must be had to the filter, or the German 
method, described hereafter, must be followed. 

If the first fermentation is well accomplished, one is now on the high 
road to success, but the after operations are so critical that only an 
expert may proper!}^ weigh them. 

17247 No. 7103 7 



98 



RACKING OFF. 



The drawing of the limpid cider from between the top and bottom 
lees is, to the Frenchman, the critical operation of cider making. 
Its correct attainment has a value easily realized b}^ one who has gone 
through the troubles incident to the use of filters. If the vessel used 
for first fermentation is properly furnished with a spigot, the cider 
may be drawn into wooden vessels and poured through a wooden fun- 
nel into a properly prepared cask near b3^ This is very commonly 
the practice among the small French farmers. Or it ma}^ be drawn 
into a larger wooden vessel and pumped to the cask prepared for it in 
the adjoining room or building for further fermentation. This is a 
very common practice in factories in France and England. 

In case the casks are unprovided with spigots, one must siphon the 
liquor out or draw it off with a pump. Both of these methods are 
objectionable, because one must in either case insert a hose at the bung 
through the top lees, which operation more or less disturbs the cider, 
and, if the cider runs directly into the cask provided for second fer- 
mentation, it is impossible to observe the character of the liquor as 
it passes, and therefore difficult to rack it off properly. The sole 
object of racking off is to free the liquor from lees and the super- 
abundance of yeast cells so that the secondary fermentation may pro- 
gress quietly. If a portion of the lees and the deposited yeast is 
carried over, the operation has resulted in little good and a second 
more or less violent fermenation may supervene. In fact, this second 
fermentation may be very dangerous if albuminous substances have 
been carried over or if one allows the lees to enter the cask into which 
the cider is drawn. 



AVOIDANCE OF CONTACT WITH AIR. 



An important precaution mentioned by several well-posted makers, 
but which was scarcely observed at all, was that, in racking off, the 
cider ought not to come in contact with the air any more than can pos- 
sibly be avoided. The reason for this is that the liquor at this stage is 
saturated with carbonic acid gas, which is the greatest safeguard against 
the growth of mal -organisms; hence, if it can be drawn directly into 
the receptacle provided for second fermentation without loss of the 
gas or direct contact with the air, much has been gained in regard to 
the safety of the further processes. This can be readil}'' accomplished 
wherever the factory is constructed so that the fermentation room is 
over the finishing or final storeroom. When one is ready to rack off, 
a hose connection should be made with the spigot, or by siphon if casks 
are not provided with spigots, and the hose should run directly into 
the receptacle in the room below. If this is done it will be necessary 
to introduce near the spigot or siphon a section of glass tube, so that 
the operator may constantly observe the character of the liquor as it 



99 

passes, and at once cut off the flow if undesirable particles are passing. 
In siphoning, a perfectly clean hose should be carried almost to the 
bottom of the receptacle, so the cider shall not fall or be agitated in 
any manner. It is an excellent plan to fill the clean vessel with car- 
bon dioxid gas before racking into it, and then the cider will not 
have an opportunity to absorb oxygen in the least. 

Backing off by the method here described, viz, drawing the cider 
from between the two lees, requires the most careful observation and 
control. (It should be said here that we do not j-et know whether a 
head will always form on must from our ordinary American apples. 
The experiments made by the writer thus far are not conclusive, 
and a chemical and biological study of the subject is yet to be made.) 
Working by this method it is possible that one will find more refuse 
or residuum remaining from each cask than he cares to lose, but this 
possible loss does not compare with the loss occasioned by the labor 
and difficulties encountered in the use of filters, though these may 
appear to use the stock a little more closely. 

If the fermentation casks are properl}^ fitted, the cider is drawn 
down until the top lees and bottom lees practically meet. This is 
determined by observing when the particles begin to pass from the 
spigot or siphon. One can draw quite closely by putting the last few 
gallons into a vessel for subsidence to take place before adding to the 
clear liquor. The lees should be removed at once from the casks, and 
instead of being thrown away they may all be put together in a vat to 
undergo further fermentation with a view to the production of vin- 
egar. This material should not, however, remain in or adjacent to 
the rooms where the cider is processed. The large fermentation casks 
should all be provided with manholes so situated that the lees can be 
quickly removed, and the vessel cleansed when it is at once ready to 
receive fresh must again. 

If one does not follow the plan of separating the liquor from the 
lees as above given, there are only two alternatives, viz, the German 
method of inclusive fermentation or the use of the filter, largely 
resorted to by English makers, and to some extent by French. The 
latter is a very troublesome and laborious process. 

SECOND FERMENTATION. 

Having delivered the liquor in a fairly bright limpid condition into 
the casks in the room designed for second fermentation, which is 
usually also the storeroom for the finished product, a few precautions 
should be observed: 

1. The vessels should be filled full and carefully bunged to exclude 
air and all manner of germs, so that the second or after fermentation 
may still be wholly controlled by the j^east colonies carried over in the 
liquor racked off. There will always be sufficient of these floating in 



100 

the liquor at this stage to control the fermentation if the liquor has 
been properly guarded from contamination. 

2. In bunging the vessels tightlj^, provision must still be made for 
the escape of gas due to fermentation. There may for a few days be 
a fairly active fermentation, especially if the liquor was much exposed 
to the air, but this will soon subside under proper conditions. One 
of the special funnels or air-control devices previously described may 
be used, and will assist very much in warning the cellar man of what 
is going on in the casks. A small apparatus such as the gljcerin 
funnel (fig. 17) will answer very well for this period of slow fermenta- 
tion, but the crocker^'^ funnel (fig. 16) renders sampling the cider 
much easier. 

3. The temperature of the room must be watched and controlled, 
and from this rule there is no exception if a sound product of fine 
quality is desired. Invariabl}^ the temperature should be lower dur- 
ing the secondary fermentation than during the first period. A tem- 
perature of 8 to 10 C. (40 to 50 F.), as shown b}^ the observations 
made in France and Germany, appears to be the most desirable for 
this period. It requires a good cellar indeed to reach the minimum 
here mentioned, but 45 F. can be reached, and at this temperature 
the yeasts work properly, and many disturbing organisms, as, for 
example, the vinegar ferment Bacterium aceti^ are quite reduced to dor- 
mancy. If the temperature can be gradually reduced to 40 F. as the 
cider reaches maturity, its safety from mal-fermentation is thereby 
well insured, because the organisms concerned in diseases of cider do 
not thrive well at this low temperature. 

SECOND BACKING OFF. 

If the must has fermented in an orderly manner and been drawn off 
as outlined above, no second racking is required until the fermenta- 
tion is practicallj' completed. But if a troubled fermentation follows 
the first racking off, then the cider must be very carefully watched 
and the temperature kept from rising above the limits mentioned. It 
will be well to use under these circumstances some means of "fining" 
or clarifying the cider so as to produce entire subsidence of the parti- 
cles held in suspension in order that a second racking off may occur 
as soon as possible. The cider must be freed from the lees and as 
far as possible from albuminous matters, or it can not progress 
properlj'^ to the completion of its period of fermentation. 

Much prejudice exists abroad against the use of animal substances, 
as gelatin, white of Qgg, and the like, for fining cider. The French 
use quite freely preparations of the bark of certain species of oak. 
But as the active principle in these is the tannin, it would seem better 
to use the commercial tannin itself. Our American fruit is so weak 
in tannin that the addition of this substance will doubtless be found 



101 

advantageous, as it appears to steady the tendency to too rapid fer- 
mentation and total destruction of the sugar; and, best of all, it helps 
to coagulate the albuminous matters, and thus to precipitate them, 
carrying down at the same time other matter held in suspension. 

The dose of tannin should be about one-half a gram per gallon accord- 
ing to French standards, but our fruit may require more for the best 
results. This may very properly be added as soon as the must is run 
into the vessels for the first fermentation, but it is mentioned here 
especially as a remedy when a second troubled fermentation sets in. 
Stir the amount of tannin needed for a cask into a small quantit}^ of 
cider and then add to the cask, and agitate by inserting a clean strip 
of wood and stirring the cider thoroughly. After treating a cask in 
this manner watch it carefully and rack off just as soon as the cider 
becomes limpid. The cider will, during this period of disturbance, 
have fallen in specific gravity. This should be carefully noted, and 
the liquor should be transferred as quickly and quietly as possibly into 
a cask suitable for the still fermentation. 

The second racking off, when it occurs in normal process of fermen- 
tation, is usually accomplished from three to five months after the first, 
and the liquor should then have cleared out bright and fine, with beau- 
tiful color, and have begun to form the bouquet of finished cider. 
The specific gravity will vary from 1.001 to 1.003, and the cider is now 
ready to go into the casks designed for transportation or into bottles. 
The English bottle at much higher specific gravity, but this would 
undoubtedly be a wrong practice in our climate. The racking into 
these final receptacles should be accomplished with the utmost care to 
guard the liquor from contamination, and, if possible, the work should 
be done in cool, bright weather with high barometer, because climatic 
conditions affect the stillness of the liquor in the casks. 

When ready the cider can be put in barrels or casks to suit the needs 
of the trade, but these must be cleaned in the most careful manner; and, 
in order to secure the cider from the effect of air, the outer surface of the 
casks should be carefully scraped to expose the fresh grain of the wood 
and then treated to a coat of hot tallow. This, if well applied, will 
render them quite impervious to air, and thus practically seal up the 
cider. The modern paraffin-coated barrels would answer well for this 
purpose. The utmost care should be observed to use perfect bungs. 
There must be no seepage, and cloths must not be used around the 
bungs, for these will be constantly moist, and thus furnish a direct 
conduit for vinegar germs to enter the cider. The bungs may be very 
properly dipped in boiling tallow or paraffin before use. 

If the cider is bottled, this should be accomplished with the utmost 
care, taking plains to conserve the carbon dioxid in the cider, and not 
to permit it to come in contact with the air. The corks used should 
be the best champagne corks and may be dipped in 50 per cent alcohol 
just as used. This will free them of germs. They should be inserted 



102 

with a regular corking machine. . The bottles should be left standing 
upright for a few da3^s until the liquor is quiet, and may then be laid 
on the side. 

LAGER FERMENTATION. 

Whether in casks or bottles, the cider is now left in the storage room 
to ripen. This is called by the Germans "lager fermentation." The 
temperature should be kept as near 40^ F. as possible, and the vessels 
(casks or bottles) should remain undisturbed. The cider will soon be- 
come sparkling, and in two to four months will be in condition for use. 

If racked into these final receptacles at the density mentioned, the 
air being carefully excluded, the result will be a cider which will, in 
a measure, champagnize itself, and retain some sugar for a long time; 
but if left in casks with the wood pores open, the cider will eventually 
become quite "dry" (free from sugar), the gas will gradually be lost, 
and the product will be a still, hard cider. This sort of cider is little 
relished by most people, and unless preserved by some chemical reagent 
or charged with carbonic-acid gas at intervals, it will be turned to 
vinegar whenever temperature conditions favor the growth of the 
vinegar ferment. 

GERMAN METHOD OF FERMENTATIOX. 

As already stated, the German makers pay no attention to the forma- 
tion of head or top lees, and make no effort to draw the cider from 
between the lees. Their cider is, therefore, different in character from 
English, French, or American cider. Their method of treating the 
must doubtless accounts, at least in part, for this difference. 

The fresh must is run into the fermentation cask until it comes 
within about 12 inches of the bung, and then, if yeasts are used, these 
are sown at once, using about one part of the strong culture, hereto- 
fore mentioned, to 100 parts of must. A ventilating funnel is now 
fitted tightly into the bunghole, a 5 per cent solution of sulphuric acid 
being used in it to prevent the entrance of organisms from the air. 

Fermentation progresses under the methods above discussed, but 
nothing is done to the liquor until it has fermented out nearly to dry- 
ness and becomes still. The top lees are permitted to fall back through 
the liquor and settle to the bottom along with the j'easts. When the 
liquor is quite still, some makers follow the practice of filling the cask 
to the bung with cider, so as to avoid having an air space, and then 
closing the bunghole sufiScientl}^ tight to prevent access of air. Bung- 
ing at this period is dangerous, unless a vent is provided for by means 
of a ventilating bung. 

There seems to be little uniformity of practice among the Germans 
about racking off. Some racked as earl}" as December, and then again 
about March, while others racked off' three or four months after put- 
ting the must in casks, and then again the next autumn, if the liquor 



103 

was not bright at first racking. Many makers filtered at first racking 
and put the cider down in casks to await bottling or preparation for 
transport in other vessels. 

The writer invariably found the ordinary finished German ciders 
poor in color and flat in taste to the American palate. They partake 
of the character of very light still wines, devoid of the piquanc}' and 
astringent character ordinarily expected in ciders. This does not alter 
the statement heretofore made that German makers produce a standard 
article of rather more definite character than those produced in the 
other countries visited, and they champagnize their ciders in a quite 
perfect manner. 

PRESERVING CIDER IN STORAGE. 

In the German cellars great care is taken to sulphur and double sul- 
phur the casks, especially as the cider is drawn from one to another in 




Fig. 20. Device for maintaining covering layer of carbon dioxid as cider is withdrawn. 

a nearly ""dry" condition. They also resort largely to the employ- 
ment of carbonic acid gas as a preservative. This is applied from 
cylinders of carbon dioxid either to barrels to fill up the vacant space 
as the cider is drawn (fig. 20), or to charge the cider in storage (fig. 21). 
A cylinder of this kind may be attached to several casks at once so 
that the overflow of gas from the first goes to the second, and so on. 
As soon as the first cask is sufficiently charged, it is disconnected and 
tightly bunged, and the operation is continued by adding other casks 
to the circuit and dropping off those charged until the work is com- 
pleted. The bungs used while charging with gas are double per- 



104 



forated, as shown, and glass tubes, TN^ith small rubber hose connections, 
are used to convey the gas from the cylinder to the casks. The device 





Fig. 21. Devise for charging casks with carbon dioxid in storage cellar. 

at the bottom is a -i-way rubber cross which admits of using four 
short distributing pipes in the liquor. As this joint is 
made with rubber connections, it is perfectly flexible and 
can easily be inserted and removed from the casks. 

The device shown in figure 22 is used to sulphur the 
casks. This may be used when cleaning barrels to destroy 
fungous organisms, but it is chiefly used abroad to sul- 
phur the casks just before running the liquor into them, 
both at first and second fermentation. Thorough sul- 
phuring will largely destroy the vegetable organisms 
which may be present in the casks. If they are not after- 
wards rinsed carefully, too much sulphur may remain in 
the casks so that the after fermentation will be hindered 
and a taste of sulphur may even be contributed to the 
cider. Perfecth^ clean water should be used for rinsing. 
The sulphur match is placed in the cup, then lighted, 
and is lowered burning into the cask until the tapering 
bung closes the opening. It will burn until the oxj^gen 
is exhausted, when it should be removed. B}^ this device 
none of the sulphur is permitted to fall into the cask. 

FILTERING OR CLARIFYING THE CIDER. 

The best English and French makers agree in the 
statement that filtering of ciders is a very laborious and 
unsatisfactory process, resulting usually in loss of quality 
to the product. The Germans, on the contrary, are more 
favorable to the filter. Filtering cider appears to be a 
process much more difficult, ordinarily, than filtering 
wine made from grapes, and should be avoided if pos- 
sible. The reason for this is the presence of mucilaginous substances 
in the liquor. However, unless a cider can be racked quite free from 



Fig. 22. Device 
for burning sul- 
phur match in 
casks. 



105 

the lees at the first racking, or at most a second racking, there is sure 
to be difficulty in securing a bright product unless the filter or some 
other method of clarifying is resorted to. The use of tannin to assist 
in clarifying ciders has already been mentioned. 

Filters of various types are in common use in the different countries 
visited, some being very primitive, while others are the best up-to- 
date appliances seen. 

The hag filter. Of primitive filters, the most simple was a device 
in form much like the insect nets used by entomologists to catch but- 
terflies (fig. 23). The cloth used was linen, of such a texture as to 
thoroughly strain the finest particles out of the cider. It is sometimes 
called forfar. These conical bags are about a foot in diameter at the 




Fig. 23. Linen sack gravity filter. 

larger end and taper to a point, the length being about 18 to 36 inches. 
They were used in considerable numbers, supported on a rack over a 
vat, as indicated. The flow through these bags is slow, and the cider 
is so much exposed to the air that if there is any tendency to mal- 
fermentation this process must surely increase the trouble. The cloths 
need frequent washing to clear them of lees, but should not be treated 
with hot water. This device was in use in both small and large factories 
in England, sometimes with fresh must, but usually when racking the 
first time. It is not commended for use in America. 

Tub filter. The best simple device seen was a large tub or vat with 
a finely perforated false bottom, supported several inches above the 
true bottom, the space between being packed with wood pulp which 



106 

served to strain or filter the cider almost perfectly. This was observed 
in an English factory where the must was fermented in open " keeves," 
the head being skimmed off until active fermentation had subsided, 
and the product being then run through this filter and put into casks 
for ripening. This apparatus does good work, but the cider is much 
exposed to the air. 

The cellulose pmver filter. Some of the English makers have come 
to use the German filter shown in figure 24. This is made b}' Otto 
Fromme at Frankfort, and is the best device observed. It is, how- 
ever, costly, and a force pump is required to drive the liquid 
through the filter, or the liquid must be drawn from some height in 
order to give the necessary pressure. This is also a wood pulp or 
cellulose filter. The pulp is arranged between perforated disks, and 
the machine permits of dismounting and washing the parts and the 
pulp at will. In some English factories attempts were made to filter 




Fig. 24. Cellulose power filter used in Germany. 

the fresh juice with this machine, but this generall}' resulted in fail- 
ure, and besides was veiy wearing on the apparatus. Fresh apple 
must is very difficult to filter because of the pectose or mucilaginous 
substances it contains. The use of any of the above filters does not 
appear to be practicable except when the must has been fairh' well 
fermented, and has freed itself in this manner of a large part of the 
parenchj^matous tissues and albuminous matters present therein. 

Asbestos sack filter. The French use a filter (fig. 25) which they 
claim will repiove all insoluble matters from the fresh must, and leave 
it clear and limpid as it goes into the cask. No demonstration of this 
was seen, but this filter (Filtre Maignen) is much used in France, 
and appears to be a good, cheap filter. It is made from asbestos. 
A fairly closely woven asbestos sack, 10 or 12 inches in diameter and 
of 2,\\\ desired length, is tied tightly at one end; then in the bottom of 
this is placed an openwork disk, and a string is tied above the same so 
as to nearly draw the sides of the sack together; above this is placed 
a second disk; and so on until the filter sack is filled. The open end 



107 

of the sack is then tied tightly around a metal fitting which connects 
with a rubber pipe, and to this pipe a pump is attached. The filter is 
placed in the tub or vat as shown (fig. 25), and the suction of the pump 
draws the must through the parts of the asbestos sack and disks, 
largely freeing the same from floating particles of whatever nature. 
In some styles of this device a second asbestos sack of coarser weave 
is drawn over this accordion-like device, and serves to still further 
assist in straining the liquor. Possibly when the cider is drawn into 
an open tub at racking ofi", and this filter is carefully used, the liquor 
can be filtered bright. 

This st^de of filter is readily cleansed, it only being necessary to 
untie the sack, remove the disks, and wash all the pieces carefully. 
Salt water, used warm, is said to accomplish this much better than 
fresh water. Filters of this pattern may be connected up in sets on 




Fig. 25. Asbestos sack filter "Filtre maignen." 

a main pipe, or on a central disk of metal, and the capacity may be 
thus greatly increased. It should be added that all metal parts of 
connections, pipes, pumps, etc., must be of brass, or other material 
which will not be attacked by acids. 

Gennan asbestos filter. The Germans use chiefly but two filters, 
viz, the one made by Fromme (shown at figure 24) and another small 
affair (fig. 26). The latter is an asbestos filter, but works solely by 
gravity , as indicated. A self -regulating (J) valve governs the inflow at 
the top, hence it can be set to work on a cask and left to itself until 
the receptacle into which the filtrate runs is filled. This device is of 
small capacity, but does good work. The cylinder is packed with 
asbestos which can be removed, washed, and re-used. 

Both of these German filters are constructed with the idea of pro- 
tecting the cider from the air, as it is in nowise exposed by their use 
except when it is delivered into the cask. This is a point of much 



108 

importance, especially among the Germans, as their cider is fermented 
nearly to dryness before filtering, and hence is less able to protect 
itself by the regeneration of abundant carbonic acid gas. For this 
reason the Germans advocate charging the casks with carbonic acid 
gas before running the cider into them. 




Fig. 26. Asbestos gravity filter. 

THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF CIDER. 

It will doubtless be clear to every one who has manufactured ciders, 
or followed the foregoing discussion, that it is not possible to fix upon 
a certain chemical composition and say this represents what should be 
considered a standard cider. Chemical analyses, however, reveal what 
it is exceedingly important to know, viz, the sugar, alcohol, and acid 
contents, with other data of possibl}'^ less importance. Without these 
data one is completely in the dark as to whether the product has been 
properly or improperly fermented, and no technical progress in the 
study of methods is possible. Chemical analyses rightly" interpreted 
will also aid the consumer in distinguishing pure from sophisticated 
ciders. 



109 

The complete stud}^ of this subject is yet to be undertaken, but rep- 
resentative samples of ciders were collected by the writer in the dif- 
ent countries visited and forwarded to the Bureau of Chemistry, 
United States Department of Agriculture, for analj^sis. To these 
samples have been added a number of typical samples of American 
ciders collected during the year 1901. The analyses of these ciders, 
with explanatory remarks, are given in the tables which follow: 

Table XIV. Composition of ciders: Analyses of French samples by Bureau of Chemistry, 
United States Department of Agriculture, 1901. 









>* 


Grams per 100 cc. / , , 


r 


1 


Name or brand. 


1 


o 
goJ 

030 






1 


a g 





V 


Source and remarks. 










o 


1 


2 


la 


i 






a 




1 





1 


* 


-d 


M 


A 




1 




0. 
CO 




< 


o 


"o 

> 




^ 


^ 




13 


Cidre mousseux . . 


1.0040 


6.30 


5.00 


0.3234 


0. 1824 


0.4483 


3.2948 


0.2942 


M. Gibout-Roux, Da- 
nestal, Calvados. 
Dry sparklingcider, 1 
year old; not typical 
mousseux of France. 


14 


Cidre marchand. . 


1.0111 


3.72 


2.95 


.4303 


.2868 


1.8970 


4.0650 


.1950 


Same source. An ordi- 
nary cider in which 
flrstandsecond press- 
ings have been 
united, 1 year old. 


15 


Boisson '. 


1.0101 


2.81 


2.23 


.4263 


.2952 


1.5888 


3.4692 


.1838 


Same source. Second 






















and third pressings 






















mixed, 1 year old. 


40 


Cidre mousseux . . 


1.0101 


6.05 


4.80 


.4214 


.2100 


2.5100 


4.9500 


.2120 


Paul Santier, Rouen. 
A typical French 
champagne cider, 1 
year old. 


41 


Cidre marchand.. 


1.0004 


6.45 


5.12 


.4214 


.1910 


.0900 


2.5100 


.2710 


Same source. Stand- 
ard pure juice, Nor- 
mandy cider. 






















47 


Cidre ordinaire . . 


1.0061 


5.00 


3.97 


.2725 


.107011.4300 


3.3800 


.1C30 


A. Power, St. Ouen-de- 






















Thouberville - E u r e. 






















Ordinary marchand 






















eider, 4 months old. 


48 


Cidre sup6rieur. . . 
Averages . . . 


.9998 


5.90 


4.68 


.2882 


.1240 


.0990 


2.0800 


.1820 


Same source. A fine 
grade of marchand 
cider, 4 months old. 




1.0059 


5.18 


4.11 


.3691 


.19951.1519 


3.3927 


.2194 





no 

Table XV. Cojiiposition of ciders: Analyses of German samples, Bureau of Cliemistry, 
United States Department of Agriculture, 1901. 











Grams per 100 cc. 


/ 


6 
iz; 
o 

"5. 

S 

ce 


Name or brand. 


^ 

> 


O 

o o 




-o 


12 
'S 

03 




be 


/ 


/ 


Source and remarks. 






S3 


o 

o 

o 

< 




"S 

O 
> 


1^ 
IS 

P5 


g 


4 
< 




1 


Common apfel 
wein. 


1.0023 


5.93 


4.71 


0.2954 


0.0864 


0.1286 


2.2140 


0.2636 


C. A. Smith, Schier- 
stein. Dry cider, 1 
year old. 


2 


Speierling apfel 


1.0002 


7.15 


5.68 


.2867 


.0696 


.1272 


2.3186 


.2539 


Same source. Said to 
be made from Speier- 




wein. 






































ling and apple. 
Frledrich Groll, Weis- 


3 


Common apfel 


1.0032 


4.94 


3.92 


.4018 


.0552 


.1234 


2.4110 


.2812 




wein. 


















baden. Low grade 
dry cider, 1 year old. 


4 


do 


1.0027 


5.83 


4.63 


.3553 


.0108 


.3062 


2.7722 


.2305 


Heinrich Merten, Er- 
benheim. Standard 
drv cider, new made. 


6 


do 


1.0003 


5.97 


4.74 


.3224 


.0564 


.0211 


2.2142 


.2834 


Fritz Batz, Neuenhain. 






Standard drv cider, 






















1 year old. 


6 


Export apfel wein 


.9997 


6.30 


5.00 


.2254 


.0360 


.0435 


2.2333 


.2544 


Same source. Export 
special stock, 1 vear 
old. 


7 


Schanme apfel 
wein. 


1.0221 


10.67 


8.47 


.3773 


.1068:7.9104 


9.2274 


.2106 


Same source. Cham- 
pagne cider, heavily 






















sugared, 1 vear old. 


9 


Export apfel wein 


.9997 


5.70 


4.52 


.2254 


.0576 


.0524 


2.0201 


.2286 


Gebriider Freveisen, 
Frankfort. Select 
dry cider, 1 year old. 


10 


Speierling apfel 
wein. 


1.0004 


5.85 


4.64 


.2631 


.03% 


.0187 


1.9158 


.2352 


Same source. Dry ci- 
der from Sorbus do- 
mestica and apples, 
1 vear old. 


11 


Borsdorfer apfel 
wein. 


1.0000 


5.81 


4.61 


.2548 


.0360 


.1221 


1.9438 


.2346 


Same source. From 
German Borsdorfer 
apple, 1 vear old. 


12 


Champagner ap- 
fel wein. 

Averages . . . 


1.0178 


8.03 


6.37 


.2573 


.0420 


5.6544 


7.3464 


.1842 


Same source. A su- 
gared champagne ci- 
der, 1 year old. 




1.0044 


6.56 


5.21 


.2968 


.0597 


1.3189 


3.3288 


.2414 





Table XVI. Composition of ciders: Analyses of English samples by Bureau of Chemistry, 
U. S. Department of Agriculture, 1901. 























/ 








Per 
cent 
alco- 


Grams per 100 cci / \ / 


Source and remarks. 


Sam- 




Spe- 
cific 
grav- 
ity. 








Re- 


i 


V 


[Nos. 22 to 31 from Bath 


to. 


Name or brand. 


hol 
vol- 


Alco- 
hol. 


Total 
acids. 


Vola- 
tile 
acids. 


duc- 
ing 
su- 


Ex- 
tract. 


Ash. 


andWest Show, 1900; 
Nos. 65 to 61 from 
Bath and West Show, 








ume. 








gar. 






1901.J 


22 


Devonshire cider, 


1.0222 


4.16 


3.30 


0.2548 


0.0672 


4.7414 


7.2136 0.2420 


Rated by official chem- 




first prize. 


















ist of Bath and West 
Society above 4 per 
cent alcohol. 


23 


Devonshire small 
cider, second 


i.o;: 


3.14 


2.50 


.3822 


.1356 


5. 1895 


7.6544 


.3080 


Rated below 4 per cent 
alcohol. 


24 


Devonshire small 
cider, first prize. 


1.0312 


2.76 


2.19 


.3283 


.0588 


6.5366 


9.2004 


.2500 


Do. 


25 


Herefordshire 
small cider, sec- 
ond prize. 


1.0304 


1.72 


1.37 


.2377 


.0840 


6.1282 


8. 5132 


.2852 


Do. 


26 


Herefordshire ci- 
der, first prize. 


1.0325 


2.75 


2.18 


.2989 


.0780 


6.3584 


9.3126 


.2708 


Rated above 4 percent 
alcohol. Champion 
prizecider. 1900, Bath 
and West Show. 


27 


Somersetshire ci- 
der, second 
prize. 


1.0266 


3.85 


3.06 


.2107 


.0504 


5.2148 


8. 1472 


.3152 


Rated above 4 per cent 
alcohol. 



Ill 

Table XVI. Composition of ciders: Analyses of English samples by Bureau of Chemistry, 
U. S. Department of Agrictdture, 1901 Continued. 







Per 
cent 
alco- 


Grams per 100 cc. y \ J^ 


Source and remarks. 


Sam- 


Spe- 
cific 
grav- 
ity. 








Re- 


K 


r 


[Nos. 22 to 31 from Bath 


ple Name or brand. 


hol 


Alco- 
hol. 


Total 
acids. 


Vola- 


duc- 


Ex- 
tract. 




and West Show, 1900; 


No. 


by 
vol- 


tile 
acids. 


ing 
su- 


Ash. 


Nos. 65 to 61 from 
Bath and West Show, 








ume. 








gar. 




1901.] 


28 


Somersetshire ci- 


1. 0307 


4.25 


3.38 


.3185 


.1116 


6.7760 9.9912 


.3886 


Do. 




der, first prize. 




















29 Somersetshire 


1.0371 


2.86 


2.27 


.2597 


.0768 


7.4669 


10.8164 


.3116 


Rated below 4 per cent 


1 small cider, first 


















alcohol. 




prize. 




















30 


Somersetshire 
small cider, sec- 
ond prize. 


1.0220 


3.37 


2.68 


.2407 


.0828 


4.5548 


6.9672 


.3040 


Do. 


31 


Somersetshire 


1.0367 


2.75 


2.18 


.3259 


.0402 


7.694610.5228 


.2856 


Do. 




small cider, re- 






















serve. 




















32 


Standard still ci- 
der from cask. 


.9997 


6.83 


6.47 


.2818 


.1020 


.0325 


2.1468 


.2666 


H. P. Bulmer & Co., 
Hereford. A very 
good dry cider, 1 
year old. 


33 


Cherry Pearmain 
cider, sparkling. 


1. 0251 


5.87 


4.66 


.2391 


.0756 


3.3121 


6.9816 


.2450 


Same source. In grade 
is equal to best 
French mousseux or 
champagne cider; 1 
year old. 


84 


Holmer Perry, 
sparkling. 


1. 0167 


6.11 


4.85 


.2999 


.1630 


3.4064 


6.4602 


.2772 


Same source. Very good 
champagne Perry, 
doubtless sugared," 1 
year old. 


35 


F X w help and 
Kingston Black 
cider. 


1.0206 


4.85 


3.85 


.2867 


.0636 


4.6392 


6.9924 


.2680 


Same source. A special 
brand of sweet cider, 
1 year old. 


36 


Standard spark- 
ling cider. 


1.0152 


4.93 


3.91 


.5366 


.3228 


1.3488 


6.0354 


3.666 


Toddington Orchard 
Co., Winchecombe, 
Gloucestershire. 
Nearly dry mousseux 
or champagne cider, 
very good, Syearsold. 


37 


Standard dry cider 


1.0065 


4.93 


3.91 


.3112 


.0768 


.9200 


3.2632 


.3146 


Same source. Good 
still, dry cider, 2 years 
old. 

Same source. Fine 


38 


Champagne Perry 


1.0129 


6.01 


4.77 


.3577 


.1296 


.8768 


4.8166 


.3928 






















grade of champagne 
Perry, probably su- 
gared, 2 years old. 










































39 


Standard new 
cider. 


1.0185 


4.19 


3.33 


.3627 


.1218 


3.2416 


6. 0670 


.3238 


Same source. Newly 
bottled cider, would 
become sparkling. 


56 


Herefordshire 
small cider, sec- 


1.0292 


3.15 


2.50 


.2.568 


.0610 


5.5000 


9.0200 


.2230 


Bath and West Show, 
1901. Rated below 4 




ond prize. 
Herefordshire 
















per cent alcohol. 


56 


1.0304 


1.60 


1.27 


.3667 


.0640 


4.4200 


8.6600 .3050 


Do. 




small cider, re- 




















serve. 


















67 


Somersetshire ci- 
der, first prize. 


1.0380 


4.55 


3.62 


.3862 


.0530 


7.1300 


12.1200 .3260 


Rated above 4 per cent 
alcohol. 


68 


Somersetshire ci- 
der, second 
prize. 


1.0244 


3.80 


3.02 


.2823 


.0950 


3.6600 


7.9800' .2580 


Do. 


59 


Somersetshire ci- 
der, reserve. 


1.0304 


4.15 


3.30 


.3371 


.0480 


4.4000 


9.3800 


.3390 


Do. 


60 


Somersetshire 
small cider, first 
prize. 


1.0398 


2.55 


2.02 


.4701 


.0520 


5.7800 


11.4900 


.1980 


Rated below 4 percent 
alcohol. 


61 


Somersetshire 
small cider, sec- 
ond prize. 

Average 


1.0172 


3.60 


2.86 


.2803 


.0620 


2.7700 


6.1900 


.2870 


Do. 




1.0249 


4.11 


3.14 


.3161 


.0910 


4.4376 


7.7920 .2940 





112 



Table XVII. Composition of ciders: Analyses of American samples by Bureau of 
Chemistry, U. S. Department of Agriculture, 1901. 









Per 
cent 
alco- 


Grams per 100 cc. >' 




Sam- 




Spe- 
cific 
grav- 
ity. 






Re- 


y 


^^ 




^S 


Name or brand. 


hol 
by 
vol- 


Alco- 
hol. 


Total Xne " 
^"<i- acids. 


duc- 
ing 

su- 


Ex- 
tract. 


Ash. 


Source and remarks. 








ume. 






gar. 








49 


Sparkling draft 


1.0053 


5.87 


4.66 


.2979 .0890 


1.1500 3.3900 


.2830 


Genesee Fruit Co., 




cider, extra dry. 


















Rochester. N. Y. A 
fair, slightly gaseous 
cider, 1 year old. 


50 


Sparkling draft... 
cider. 


1.0101 


5.57 


4.42 


.3508 .1340 


2.11004.6700 


.2880 


Same source. More 
sparkling than 
above: 1 year old. 


51 


Plain fermented 


.9987 


7.83 


6.22 


.3626 


.0860 


.00002.3600 


.2920 


Same source. Perfect- 




cider. 


















ly dry, still cider, 1 
year old. 


52 


Crab-apple cider.. 


1.0178 


5.51 


4.37 


.2372 


.0490 


3.34006.7000 


.2770 


Same source. A spark- 
ling cider of mous- 
seux or champagne 
grade, 1 year old. 




















63a 


Paulding Pippin 


1.0289 


2.16 


1.71: .4567 


.0250 


5.99008.2300 


.2410 


H. Paulding, jr., Hun- 




cider, 1900. 
















tington. L. I.. N. Y. 
A sweet mousseux 
cider, 1 year old. 


63 


Same, 1899 


1.0292 


3.921 3.12! 


.0220!5.1700 9.0300 


.2830 


Same source. Almost 






















identical in charac- 






















ter, but greater al- 






















coholic strength; 2 




Average 


















years old. 




1.0150 


5.14 


4.08 .3410 


.0590 


2.9600 5.7300 


.2770 






Sautemesa 


1.0040 


5.54 


4.43 .3600 




.9800 2.6000 




Made with pure yeast 
culture by Professor 




















Alwood. "a fine dry 




















champagne cider. 




Valine d'Augea... 


1.0030 


6.51 


5.20 


.4800 




.20002.2400 




Made with pure yeast, 






















as above. A very 























drj' sparkling cider. 



a Samples of cider made at Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station; analyses made by Professor 
Davidson. 

Discussion of these tables is hardly necessary further than to call 
attention to salient facts relating to the specific gravity, alcohol, and 
sugar content. The French and German ciders are remarkabl}' alike 
in regard to specific gravit}^ and the indications are that these ciders 
are fermented practically dry. The analyses show this to be the case. 
There are two German samples Nos. 7 and 1 2 with comparatively 
high specific gravity, and these show a considerable percentage of 
sugar still unfermented, in fact a ver}' much larger percentage than is 
necessar}^ to produce the desired result, namely, to champagnize the 
cider. The French cider, No. 40, is a champagne cider with a much 
smaller sugar content. It is a question of the taste of one's customers 
whether such highl}^ sugared champagne ciders as these two German 
samples should be made. In the writer's opinion the French sample 
is better; and it has been definitely proved at Blacksburg that a fine 
gaseous or champagne cider can be made without the addition of sugar. 
The French samples are strikingly high in volatile acids, which would 
indicate the presence of acetic acid. The cellar methods may account 
for this. 

The two analyses given at the bottom of the table of American sam- 
ples are ciders made at the experiment station at Blacksburg, Va. 
Both were prepared from samples of the same must, handled side by 



113 

side, until finished. Each was sown with a culture of pure yeast, the 
one a yeast isolated from a French Sauterne wine, the other from a 
Normandy cider of the Vallee d'Auge district. The first resulted in 
a fine cider of beautiful color, gaseous, and with flavor like cham- 
pagne, the other in a very fine, dry cider, sparkling and gaseous. 
Sugaring ciders for champagnizing is a doubtful practice, and the 
best-posted makers abroad insist that the true future of cider making 
lies along the line of fully fermented dry ciders. 

The analyses of English ciders show wide variations in their compo- 
sition. The samples Nos. 22 to 31 and 55 to 61, inclusive, were taken 
at the Bath and West Show, the first set in 1900 and the second in 
1901. Both sets of samples reveal similar characteristics high specific 
gravity and in the main low alcohol and high sugar content. These 
are simply incompletelj^ fermented ciders, either filtered as clear as 
possible of yeasts and held in highly sulphured casks, or treated with 
chemicals to check fermentation, Nos. 32 to 39 are samples taken at 
factories, as revealed by the notes, and are among the ver^^ best ciders 
collected, and show the possibilities of English cider fruits. 

WORKS OF REFERENCE. 

As mentioned previously in the discussion, the French literature on 
cider making is very voluminous, but it can not be said that it is all 
of great value. In fact there is an enormous literature on every 
phase of the subject, expressing every shade of opinion, so that one is 
at great loss what to commend. Consequentlv there is given in the 
subjoined list only a few references, and these are to those sources 
which were found to be most useful and reliable. The first work is 
now out of print and can rarel}' be found. The others are mostly 
easy to obtain. 

Of the German literature it must be said that it is not abundant nor 
ver}' rich in actual observations made on growing the fruit and making 
the cider, nor in technical investigations of a chemical nature or other- 
wise. The books presented in the list are mostly compilations b}^ 
persons more or less familiar with the actual practice of cider or wine 
making. 

The recent English literature is practically all found in the Journal 
of the Bath and West of England Society and the other two works 
named. There is an older English literature on the subject, which is 
practicall)'^ inaccessible. 

FRE>XH WORKS. 

L. de Boutteville et A. Hauchecorne. Le Cidre. A treatise based upon the papers 
and discussions delivered before the Cider Congresses held at Rouen 1864 to 1875. 
This is perhaps one of the most important papers in the French literature, com- 
prising the most elaborate notes upon varieties and their chemical composition. 

A. Truelle. Guide pratique des meilleurs fruits de pressoir, employes dans le pays 
d'Auge. L'enseignement de la pomiculture et de 1' Industrie cidriere en France 

17247 No. 7103 8 



114 

et a I'etranger. (Congres international pour I'etude des fruits de pressoir et de 
I'industrie du cidre, Paris, 1900, pp. 127-326.) (In this treatise the author gives 
the most elaborate bibliography extant of works in all languages on cider making 
and related subjects.) 

Dr. Dennis-Dumont. Propri^t^s m^dicales et hygi^niques du cidre. Caen. With- 
out date. (In this Dr. Dumont presents a considerable array of facts concerning the 
healthf ulness of cider as a common beverage. ) 

Bulletin de I'Association pomologique de I'ouest. (This is the publication of a 
society organized in 1883 under above title, which continued up to 1897, during which 
time it published annual volumes containing many papers of value.) 

Bulletin de I'Association fran^aise pomologique pour I'^tude des fruits de pres- 
soir et I'industrie du cidre. (This is the proceedings of a society organized in 
1897, which continues to meet annually and publishes a journal containing papers 
by the best investigators, practitioners, and writers on this subject. ) 

G. Power. Traite de la culture du pommier et de la fabrication du cidre. Tome 1. 
Monographie des meilleures vari^t^s de pommes k cidre. Tome II. (These two vol- 
umes constitute the best work on this subject in the French language, considered as a 
text-book. ) 

G. Jacquemin. Les fermentations rationnelles. (In this large work M. Jacque- 
min deals extensively with the employment of pure yeast in the manufacture of 
wines and ciders, and summarizes much of the best literature on the subject. ) 

L. Seguin et F. Pailheret. Etudes sur le cidre. (This work gives an account of 
the studies made by the authors on the manufacture of cider by diffusion, at the 
national school of agriculture at Rennes, France, and as an appendix, the most com- 
plete table of the analyses of cider fruits that the writer has yet seen. ) 

Bulletin du Ministere de 1' Agriculture. (This publication is issued in serial num- 
bers from the ministry and contains many important articles, among others all of 
Professor Kayser's work. ) 

Le Cidre. (A monthly review devoted to the industry of cider making.) 

Le Cidre et le Poire. (A monthly review similar to the last named. ) 

GERMAN WORKS. 

Dr. A. Graeger. Die Obstweinkunde, oder Bereitung aller Arten Wein aus Beeren 
Stein und Kernobst, als auch aus den Bliiten, Bliittern und Wurzeln einiger 
Pflanzen. 

Johannes Bottner. Die Obstweinbereitung. Anleitung zum Keltern des Apfel- 
weins und der andern Obst, etc. Sechste Auflage. 

Prof. Dr. Behrend. Untersuchung von in Wiirttemberg produzirten Obstweinen. 
(Mittheilungen aus Hohenheim.) Obstweine aus reinen Obst- Arten, ausgestellt 
von dem Technologischen Institut der Koniglichen wiirttembergischen landwirth- 
schaftlichen Akademie in Hohenheim, etc. 

Prof. Dr. Julius Wortmann. Anwendung und Wirkung reiner Hefen in der 
Weinbereitung. (Studies from the Laboratory of Plant Physiology, Geisenheim.) 

Dr. Adolf Cluss. Die Apfelweinbereitung. (A general treatise on cider making, 
written in a plain style. ) 

Antonio dal Piaz. Die Obstweinbereitung nebst Obst- und Beerenwein-Brennerei. 
(A compilation. ) 

ENGLISH WORKS. 

R. Hogg and H. Graves Bull. The Apple and Pear as Vintage Fruits. (The best 
recent English work, which treats both of cider fruits and cider making.) 

Journal of the Bath and West of England Society, established 1777, and Southern 
Counties Association. Vol. IV, 1894, and subsequent numbers. 

Cooke, C. W. Radcliffe. Lecture on Cider before the Society of Arts. A Book 
about Cider and Perry. (A plain, practical treatise by a country gentleman who 
makes good cider. ) 

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